nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Why Did Gender Wage Convergence in the United States Stall? By Peter Blair; Benjamin Posmanick
  2. Gender altruism and attitudes towards violence against women By Pablo Selaya; Neda Trifkovic; Vincent Leyaro
  3. Women's Rights and the Gender Migration Gap By Gutmann, Jerg; Marchal, Léa; Simsek, Betül
  4. Edutainment, gender and intra-household decision-making in agriculture: A field experiment in Kenya By Aju, Stellamaris; Kramer, Berber; Waithaka, Lilian
  5. The Emergence of Procyclical Fertility: The Role of Gender Differences in Employment Risk By Coskun, Sena; Dalgic, Husnu

  1. By: Peter Blair (Harvard Graduate School of Education); Benjamin Posmanick (St. Bonaventure University)
    Abstract: During the 1980s, the wage gap between white women and white men in the US declined by approximately 1 percentage point per year. In the decades since, the rate of gender wage convergence has stalled to less than one-third of its previous value. An outstanding puzzle in economics is ``why did gender wage convergence in the US stall?'' Using an event study design that exploits the timing of state and federal family-leave policies, we show that the introduction of the policies can explain 94% of the reduction in the rate of gender wage convergence that is unaccounted for after controlling for changes in observable characteristics of workers. If gender wage convergence had continued at the pre-family leave rate, wage parity between white women and white men would have been achieved as early as 2017.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, Family and Medical Leave Act, family leave
    JEL: J16 J31 J32
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Pablo Selaya (University of Copenhagen); Neda Trifkovic (University of Copenhagen); Vincent Leyaro (University of Dar es Salaam)
    Abstract: We construct measures of gender altruism, or the propensity of an equal allocation towards the other gender, in a series of dictator and ultimatum games. We compare different types of fishing societies in rural Tanzania, and find (a) systematically lower levels of gender altruism in lake-fishing villages compared to sea-fishing villages, and (b) a higher tendency for participants in lake-fishing villages to justify violence against women. Our findings provide experimental evidence supporting the idea that differences in cultural norms about gender equality shape individual attitudes towards violence against women.
    Keywords: Inequality, violence against women, altruism, equality, dictator game, ultimatum game, fishing societies, Tanzania,
    JEL: O13 J16 C93
    Date: 2023–01–08
  3. By: Gutmann, Jerg; Marchal, Léa; Simsek, Betül
    Abstract: This is the first global study of how institutionally entrenched gender discrimination affects the gender migration gap (GMG) using data on 158 origin and 37 destination countries over the period 1961-2019. We estimate a gravity equation derived from a random utility maximization model of migration that accounts for migrants' gender. Instrumental variable estimates indicate that increasing gender equality in economic or political rights generally deepens the GMG, i.e., it reduces female emigration relative to that of men. In line with our theoretical model, this average effect is driven by higher-income countries. In contrast, increased gender equality in rights reduces the GMG in lower-income countries by facilitating female emigration.
    Keywords: Discrimination, Gender equality, Individual rights, Migration, RUM model
    JEL: F22 J16 J71 K38 O15 P48
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Aju, Stellamaris; Kramer, Berber; Waithaka, Lilian
    Abstract: Oftentimes, a man’s opinion is valued over a woman’s, with women expected to take a back seat when decisions are made in their households and in society (Kawarazuka et al., 2019). Such social norms create unequal participation between female and male smallholder farmers in African agriculture. Additionally, it puts women in positions where they can be abused (and tolerate abuse), especially by their spouses. This is a threat to women’s empowerment, increasing gender gaps in society and within families. It is therefore imperative to address societal norms that do not allow a level playing ground for both sexes in agriculture.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, education, gender, women, decision making, agriculture, households, edutainment
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Coskun, Sena (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany ; FAU); Dalgic, Husnu (Univ. Mannheim)
    Abstract: "Fertility in the US exhibits an increasingly more procyclical pattern. We argue that women’s breadwinner status is behind procyclical fertility: (i) women’s relative income in the family has increased over time; and (ii) women are more likely to work in relatively stable and countercyclical industries whereas men tend to work in volatile and procyclical industries. This creates a countercyclical gender income gap as women become breadwinners in recessions, producing an insurance effect of women’s income. Our quantitative framework features a general equilibrium OLG model with endogenous fertility and human capital choice. We show that the change in gender employment cyclicality can explain 38 to 44 percent of the emergence of procyclical fertility. Our counterfactual analysis shows that in a world in which men become nurses and women become construction workers, we would observe “countercyclical fertility” but at the expense of lower human capital accumulation as families lean in more towards quantity in the quality-quantity trade-off." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: USA ; IAB-Open-Access-Publikation ; Auswirkungen ; Erwerbsbeteiligung ; erwerbstätige Frauen ; Familieneinkommen ; Frauen ; Fruchtbarkeit ; generatives Verhalten ; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren ; geschlechtsspezifischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Konjunkturabhängigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktrisiko ; Arbeitsplatzgefährdung ; Wirtschaftszweige ; 1964-2018
    JEL: E24 E32 J11 J13 J16 J21 J24
    Date: 2022–12–21

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