nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒01‒16
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The Gender Gap in Political Participation: Evidence from the MENA Region By Ali Fakih; Yara Sleiman
  2. Would Closing the Gender Digital Divide Close the Economic Gender Gap in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies? An Empirical Assessment By Mahmoud Mohieldin; Racha Ramadan
  3. Determinants of gender gaps in youth employment in urban Mozambique By Jana Bischler; Eva-Maria Egger; Paul Jasper; Ivan Manhique
  4. Mind the gap: Effects of the national minimum wage on the gender wage gap in Germany By Schmid, Ramona
  5. Rank versus Inequality—Does Gender Composition Matter? By Duk Gyoo Kim; Max Riegel
  6. Women Use More Positive Language than Men: Candidates’ strategic use of emotive language in election campaigns By Tiffany BARNES; Charles CRABTREE; MATSUO Akitaka; ONO Yoshikuni
  7. Measuring Gender and Religious Bias in the Indian Judiciary By Ash, Elliott; Asher, Sam; Bhowmick, Aditi; Bhupatiraju, Sandeep; Chen, Daniel L.; Devi, Tatanya; Goessmann, Christoph; Novosad, Paul; Siddiqi, Bilal
  8. The Gender Education Gap in Developing Countries: Roles of Income Shocks and Culture By Sylvain Dessy; Luca Tiberti; David Zoundi

  1. By: Ali Fakih (Lebanese American University); Yara Sleiman (Lebanese American University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates gender differences in political participation across 10 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region using data extracted from the World Values Survey (2010-2014). A distinction is made between two different participation types, institutional and non-institutional. We utilize an ordered logit model to evaluate whether the gender gap in both forms is mediated by demographic and attitudinal controls and assess whether variables influencing participation affect men and women differently. We find that socioeconomic resources and political attitudes are correlated with higher levels of participation. However, the analysis reveals a persistent gender gap that can be generalized to the entire spectrum of engagement in the MENA, with larger gaps for less institutionalized forms.
    Date: 2021–11–20
  2. By: Mahmoud Mohieldin (Faculty of Economics and Political Science- Cairo University); Racha Ramadan (Cairo University)
    Abstract: COVID-19 crisis accelerated the use of information technology-based solutions, as e-learning and remote work became the new normal. Nevertheless, access to and use of technology are not gender neutral. In Emerging Markets and Developing Economies (EMDEs), women have less access to the internet and other technological tools than men. Limited access to technology may hinder women’s access to economic opportunities. Thus, the present paper investigates the impact of the digital gender divide on the gender gap in labor market participation, controlling for the gender gap in education, social norms and other macro-economic characteristics of EMDEs and developed countries. Using World Development Indicators, Global Findex database and World Value Surveys for 2017, a two-stage least squares approach was used to control for the endogeneity of the gender gap in access to internet. The results show that closing the gender gap in internet usage would reduce the gender gap in labor market participation. However, this positive effect is lower in the EMDEs than in advanced economies, shedding the light on the importance of traditional gender roles as key determinant of the gender gap in labor market participation in EMDEs. The present results have important implications for policies targeting women empowerment (SDG5) and reducing inequalities (SDG10). Digital solutions could help segments of women manage and balance familial obligations with paid work better.
    Date: 2022–05–20
  3. By: Jana Bischler; Eva-Maria Egger; Paul Jasper; Ivan Manhique
    Abstract: In this study, we explore the correlates of the employment gender gap among urban youth in Mozambique. Young people are confronted with simultaneous decisions about education, work and family life influenced by social norms around gender roles. Using data from a panel of individuals in 2017 and 2020, aged between 15-25 years in 2017, that covers information on education, employment, fertility, social life, gender norms and more, we observe an increase of 10 percentage points in the raw employment gender gap over time to the disadvantage of young women.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Employment, Decomposition, Regression analysis, Mozambique
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Schmid, Ramona
    Abstract: With its introduction in 2015, the statutory minimum wage in Germany intends to benefit primarily low-wage workers. Thus, this paper aims at estimating the effectiveness of the im- plemented wage floor on gender wage gaps in the lower half of the wage distribution. Using administrative data, distinct regional differences regarding magnitudes of wage differentials and responses to the minimum wage are identified. Overall, wage gaps between men and women at the 10th percentile decrease by 2.46 and 6.34 percentage points respectively in the West and East of Germany after 2015. Applying counterfactual wage distributions, the study provides new evidence that around 60% and even 95% of the decline result from the introduction of the minimum wage in each region. Further, group-specific analyses identify concrete responses on the basis of age, educational level and occupational activity. Having yearly data, the study ad- ditionally reveals new results on the impact of the successive minimum wage raises in 2017 and 2019. Counterfactual aggregate decompositions of gender wage gaps finally indicate a decrease in discriminatory remuneration structures in the West of Germany due to the introduced wage floor.
    Keywords: Gender Wage Gap, Minimum Wage, Germany
    JEL: J16 J31 J38 J71 J78
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Duk Gyoo Kim; Max Riegel
    Abstract: This study investigates the influence of gender composition on allocation decisions involving a rank–inequality tradeoff. In a laboratory experiment, participants chose to either alleviate inequality by relinquishing their current relative rank or exacerbate inequality by maintaining their current rank. Two essential features of the experiment are: 1) participants’ relative rank is the outcome of their real-effort performance and luck; 2) participants’ genders are naturally revealed by gender-specific nicknames. We found that female participants are more reluctant to relinquish their current relative rank when the persons ranked below and above them are of the opposite gender. This tendency was less pronounced in the male participants.
    Keywords: gender composition, positional concerns, preferences for redistribution, last-place aversion, perception of luck
    JEL: C91 D63
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Tiffany BARNES; Charles CRABTREE; MATSUO Akitaka; ONO Yoshikuni
    Abstract: How do political candidates strategically use emotive language for electoral purposes? We argue that women candidates are more constrained in the strategies available to them in shielding themselves from backlash on the campaign trail. To test our theoretical expectations, we construct and use a dataset of approximately 165, 000 Tweets from 2, 662 candidates and responses to these Tweets that were posted during the last two UK General Elections. Our analysis of candidate Tweets finds that women candidates are more positive and less negative than their men counterparts, regardless of whether they are incumbent or challengers. Importantly, this pattern of women’s behavior is not simply reflective of socialization. Indeed, our results show that negative Tweets attract more attention (in terms of the number of replies and likes) for both men and women, but that negative Tweets from women candidates are met with more negative responses than those from men. In other words, women candidates face backlash when they engage in negative emoting. These findings suggest that, consistent with our argument, women candidates are strategically motivated to behave in gender-typical ways in election campaigns.
    Date: 2022–12
  7. By: Ash, Elliott; Asher, Sam; Bhowmick, Aditi; Bhupatiraju, Sandeep; Chen, Daniel L.; Devi, Tatanya; Goessmann, Christoph; Novosad, Paul; Siddiqi, Bilal
    Abstract: We study judicial in-group bias in Indian criminal courts, collecting data on over 80 million legal case records from 2010–2018. We exploit quasi-random as- signment of judges and changes in judge cohorts to examine whether defendant outcomes are affected by being assigned to a judge with a similar religious or gender identity. We estimate tight zero effects of in-group bias. The upper end of our 95% confidence interval rejects effect sizes that are one-fifth of those in most of the prior literature.
    JEL: J15 J16 K4 O12
    Date: 2022–12–16
  8. By: Sylvain Dessy; Luca Tiberti; David Zoundi
    Abstract: When exposed to an adverse income shock, cash-constrained households may lean on culture to select the gender of offspring whose outcomes will be sacrificed to enhance survival. We test this by studying how culture mediates the impact of drought on the gender education gap in two separate settings: Malawi and Indonesia. In so doing, we proxy culture with kinship traditions (matrilocality and patrilocality) and exploit drought episodes' spatial and temporal randomness as a source of exogenous variation in rural households' exposure to adverse income shocks. After accounting for the grid and year-fixed effects, we find that patrilocal households, but not matrilocal ones, sacrifice their daughters' schooling in favor of sons' when they experience droughts and schooling requires payment of fees. These results survive numerous robustness checks and are driven by disparities in women's empowerment and the extent of son preference between matrilocal and patrilocal groups.
    Keywords: Drought; Kinship traditions; Matrilocality; Patrilocality; Gender education gap.
    JEL: I24 I25 I28 O12 O57
    Date: 2022

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