nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒01‒09
eleven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The Gender Pay Gap in the CEOs' Labor Market By Tani, Massimiliano; Valentine, Andrew; Sharpe, Kieran
  2. Gender Stereotypes in the Family By Nicoletti, Cheti; Sevilla, Almudena; Tonei, Valentina
  3. The Long-Term Effects of Teachers' Gender Bias By Joan Martinez
  4. Editing a Woman's Voice By Anna Costello; Ekaterina Fedorova; Zhijing Jin; Rada Mihalcea
  5. Performance-related Pay and the UK Gender Pay Gap By Jones, Melanie; Kaya, Ezgi
  6. Gender Homophily, Collaboration, and Output. By Lorenzo Ductor; Anja Prummer
  7. The Formation of Competitive Preferences By Åshild A. Johnsen; Henning Finseraas; Torbjørn Hanson; Andreas Kotsadam
  8. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Socioemotional Development and Their Later Economic Consequences By Azmat, Ghazala; Kaufmann, Katja Maria; Özdemir, Yasemin
  9. Culture and the Labor Supply of Female Immigrants By Bredtmann, Julia; Otten, Sebastian
  10. Reducing the gender gap in parental leave through economic incentives? – Evidence from the gender equality bonus in Sweden By Rosenqvist, Olof
  11. Social Networks, Gender Norms and Women's Labor Supply: Experimental Evidence Using a Job Search Platform By Afridi, Farzana; Dhillon, Amrita; Roy, Sanchari; Sangwan, Nikita

  1. By: Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales); Valentine, Andrew (UNSW Sydney); Sharpe, Kieran
    Abstract: We study the gender pay gap in the labor market for CEOs by analysing 1,174 outsider CEO successions over the past three decades across 18 countries. We find that male and female CEOs receive a similar compensation overall but this masks marked gender differences in the pay structure: namely, women CEOs receive a lower proportion of fixed to total compensation than comparable men. We interpret this outcome as the result of gendered risk preferences, which exacerbate the pay gap when there is bargaining over pay, and contribute a theoretical model of the CEO labor market to formalise this intuition. The model also suggests that a more balanced gender composition in companies' boards can help women close the gap in pay structure—an hypothesis that is empirically supported in our data.
    Keywords: CEO compensation, women CEOs, board diversity, corporate governance
    JEL: J16 J31 G39 M59
    Date: 2022–12
  2. By: Nicoletti, Cheti (University of York); Sevilla, Almudena (London School of Economics); Tonei, Valentina (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: We study whether and why parents have gender-stereotyped beliefs when they assess their child's skills. Exploiting systematic differences in parental beliefs about a child's skills and blindly graded standardized test scores, we find that parents overestimate boys' skills more so than girls' in mathematics (a male-stereotyped subject), whereas there are no gender differences for reading. Consistent with an information friction hypothesis, we find that the parental gender bias disappears for parents who are interviewed after receiving information on their child's test scores. We further show that the parental gender bias in detriment of girls contributes to explain the widening of the gender gap in mathematical skills later in childhood, supporting the hypothesis that exposure to gender biases negatively influence girls' ability to achieve their full potential.
    Keywords: parental beliefs, gender bias, stereotypes, school performance, standardized scores
    JEL: J13 D13 C23 C26
    Date: 2022–12
  3. By: Joan Martinez
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of teachers' gender biases on students' long-term outcomes, including high school completion, college attendance, and formal sector employment. I measure teacher bias using differences in gender gaps between teacher-assigned and blindly-graded tests, and validate the assessment-based measure with novel data on teachers' attitudes, as captured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). I develop a large-scale online portal available to teachers and students in Peruvian public schools to collect IAT scores nationwide. This analysis provides evidence that math teachers who strongly associate males with scientific disciplines give higher scores to male students, when compared to blindly-graded test scores, while language arts teachers who strongly associate females with humanities-based disciplines award higher grades to female students. Next, using graduation, college enrollment, and matched employer-employee data on 1.7 million public high school students who were expected to graduate between 2015 and 2019, I find that female students who are assigned to more biased teachers are less likely to complete high school and apply to college than male students. Moreover, female students assigned to more biased teachers in high school are less likely to hold a job in the formal sector after graduation and have fewer paid working hours relative to their male classmates. Exposure to gender-biased teachers also leads to monthly earnings losses for women, further exacerbating the gender pay gap.
    Date: 2022–12
  4. By: Anna Costello; Ekaterina Fedorova; Zhijing Jin; Rada Mihalcea
    Abstract: Do societal pressures encourage women to be more uncertain than their male counterparts? We explore this question in the context of academic publishing, by examining the evolution of cautionary language used in manuscripts over the course of the review process. Comparing pre-submission versions of manuscripts to their published versions reveals a robust pattern: in first drafts of academic manuscripts, male and female authors write with similar levels of uncertainty. However, when we trace those early drafts to their published versions, an 11 point gap in uncertainty arises. We take a multi-method approach to isolate the role of gender in changes in uncertainty, including extensive control variables and fixed effects, and by training an NLP model to simulate all-else-equal counterfactual observations. Finally, we explore the role of individual editors in contributing to the gender gap in changes in uncertainty; we do so by constructing a network of author-to-editor matches that allow us to extract editor-specific fixed effects, capturing how a particular editor influences female-authored papers relative to male-authored papers (the editor's author-gender gap). We find considerable variation in editors' author-gender gaps and find that these editor-specific effects account for significant variation in the changes in uncertainty of an article through the review process. Finally, we show that an editor's author-gender gap correlates with observable editor characteristics such as societal norms in their country-of-origin, their work history, and the year that they obtained their PhD. Overall, our study speaks to the critical role of editors in shaping how female academics communicate.
    Date: 2022–12
  5. By: Jones, Melanie; Kaya, Ezgi
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of performance-related pay to the UK gender pay gap at the mean and across the earnings distribution. Applying decomposition methods to data from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, we find that performance-related pay is an important but neglected factor, with the lower probability of females being employed in performance-related pay jobs explaining 12 per cent of the observed mean gender pay gap and making a larger contribution than many work-related characteristics routinely included in studies of this nature. Driven by its influence in the private sector, employment in performance-related pay jobs is more important in explaining the gender pay gap at the top end of the wage distribution, consistent with gender differences in receipt of bonus payments. Gender differences in the reward to performance-related pay jobs have a further, but more modest, role in widening the national and private sector mean gender pay gap.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, performance-related pay, earnings distribution, sector
    JEL: J31 J33 J45 J71
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Lorenzo Ductor (Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada.); Anja Prummer (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Queen Mary University London.)
    Abstract: We consider the implications of gender homophily in Economics, which has persisted despite the significant increase in women in the field. As women remain underrepresented, gender homophily may serve as a constraint in collaboration. It could also lead to less gender diverse co-author teams than may be optimal in terms of generating high quality research papers. We show that gender homophily neither constrains collaboration nor prevents higher quality output. Gender diversity is not an asset in Economics.
    Keywords: Homophily, Collaboration, Diversity, Research Quality.
    JEL: D85 J16 O30
    Date: 2022–12–21
  7. By: Åshild A. Johnsen (Oslo and Akershus University College - Oslo Business School); Henning Finseraas (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)); Torbjørn Hanson (FFI Kjeller); Andreas Kotsadam (University of Oslo - Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Men are more competitive than women, but we do not know how stable competitive preferences are. We conduct a pre-registered data collection in the Norwegian Armed Forces, a traditionally male environment, using survey measures of competitiveness that are known to be correlated with competitive behavior in the lab. We find that there is selection into the environment but that there is still a gender difference at baseline. We further find that the competitive preferences become stronger for both women and men over a period of eight weeks. The changes are large enough to eliminate the initial gender gap if only women had been exposed to the setting.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, Gender, Endogenous preferences
    Date: 2021–11–29
  8. By: Azmat, Ghazala (Sciences Po, Paris); Kaufmann, Katja Maria (University of Bayreuth); Özdemir, Yasemin (University of Bayreuth)
    Abstract: We exploit a large exogenous shock to study socioemotional development (SED) during adolescence and the consequences on relevant economic outcomes, focusing on gender differences. Using novel, longitudinal, microdata on cohorts of East German adolescents before and after a large macro shock (the German Reunification), we causally estimate the impact on SED, finding substantial negative effects in the short run. These effects are similar for male and female youth. In terms of how these changes in SED impact behavior, however, we find stark differences by gender, observing important changes in externalizing behavior and behavioral control problems among males only as opposed to changes in internalizing behavior among females only. Ultimately, the effects on longer-run outcomes (subjective health, wellbeing, education) are grave and similar for both genders
    Keywords: socioemotional development, youths, gender, behavior, health, education
    JEL: D91 I12 I31 J13 J16 J24
    Date: 2022–12
  9. By: Bredtmann, Julia (RWI); Otten, Sebastian (RWI)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of source-country culture on the labor supply of female immigrants in Europe. We find that the labor supply of immigrant women is positively associated with the female-to-male labor force participation ratio in their source country, which serves as a proxy for the country's preferences and beliefs regarding women's roles. This suggests that the culture and norms of their source country play an important role for immigrant women's labor supply. However, contradicting previous evidence for the U.S., we do not find evidence that the cultural effect persists through the second generation.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, immigration, integration, cultural transmission, epidemiological approach
    JEL: J16 J22 J61
    Date: 2022–12
  10. By: Rosenqvist, Olof (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Using administrative data from Sweden, I study an internationally unique parental leave policy that rewarded parents with a financial bonus as a function of their division of paid parental leave. Results from a birthdate based regression discontinuity design show that the policy significantly reduced the absolute difference in days of paid leave between the parents. Since parents started earning bonus only after the exhaustion of the 60 reserved days for each parent, the response to the bonus was completely driven by the roughly 55 % of the couples who exhausted all reserved days. Within this group, the effect of the policy was particularly strong in the small group of parents where the father had the highest uptake, causing the effect on the mother-father difference in uptake to be insignificant. Labor market earnings and temporary parental leave (i.e., caring for the child when he/she is too sick to be in school/daycare center), which has been argued to be a good proxy for a parent’s general childcare involvement beyond the first years after childbirth, were not significantly affected by the bonus. However, mothers who lowered (increased) their uptake of parental leave in response to the bonus policy displayed negative (positive) point estimates for temporary parental leave and positive (negative) point estimates for labor earnings. While a corresponding pattern for fathers could not be observed, for mothers, the results suggest a potentially important link between the length of the early parental leave and later allocation of time between home and market production.
    Keywords: Parental leave; gender equality bonus; home production; regression discontinuity
    JEL: D13 J13 J16
    Date: 2022–12–02
  11. By: Afridi, Farzana (Indian Statistical Institute); Dhillon, Amrita (King's College London); Roy, Sanchari (King's College London); Sangwan, Nikita (Indian Statistical Institute)
    Abstract: Using a cluster randomized control trial, we study the role of women's social networks in improving female labor force participation. In the first treatment arm, a hyper-local digital job search platform service was offered to a randomly selected group of married couples (non-network treatment) in low-income neighborhoods of Delhi, India. In the second treatment arm, the service was offered to married couples and the wife's social network (network treatment), to disentangle the network effect. Neither couples nor their networks were offered the service in the control group. Approximately one year after the intervention, we find no increase in the wife's likelihood of working in either treatment group relative to the control group. Instead, there is a significant improvement in their husbands' labor market outcomes, including the likelihood of working, work hours, and monthly earnings, while in contrast home-based self-employment increased among wives – both in the network treatment group. We argue that our findings can be explained by the gendered structure of social networks in our setting, which reinforces (conservative) social norms about women's (outside) work.
    Keywords: social networks, social norms, gender, job-matching platforms, employment
    JEL: J16 J21 J24 O33
    Date: 2022–11

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