nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒12‒12
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Women’s autonomy and gender equality at the centre of climate action in Latin America and the Caribbean By Aguilar Revelo, Lorena
  2. Statistical Discrimination Against Underrepresented Groups By Hagmann, David; Sajons, Gwendolin; Tinsley, Catherine
  3. Microentrepreneurs' Gender Difference in Labor Demand By Oladipo, Oluwasheyi S.; Shim, Hyoung Suk
  4. High Speed Internet and the Widening Gender Gap in Adolescent Mental Health: Evidence from Hospital Records By Arenas-Arroyo, Esther; Fernández-Kranz, Daniel; Nollenberger, Natalia

  1. By: Aguilar Revelo, Lorena
    Abstract: This document was prepared —within the framework of the sixty-second meeting of the Presiding Officers of the Regional Conference on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean— as part of the preparations for the sixty-sixth session of the Commission on the Status of Women, whose priority theme was “Achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls in the context of climate change, environmental and disaster risk reduction policies and programmes”. The purpose of this document and the recommendations it contains is not only to advance towards the achievement of gender equality and sustainable development in the region, but also to offer innovative and transformative contributions from Latin America and the Caribbean, placing gender equality and women’s autonomy at the centre of the process.
    Date: 2022–10–28
  2. By: Hagmann, David (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Sajons, Gwendolin; Tinsley, Catherine
    Abstract: When employers make hiring decisions, they have to predict a job candidate's performance on the basis of observable attributes. Demographic characteristics, such as gender and race, affect these assessments even when they are not predictive of performance. In this paper, we propose that a simple cognitive mechanism can lead people to form false beliefs about performance differences after receiving true information. Specifically, we suggest that people who learn about the demographic characteristics of top performers fail to adjust for the prevalence of people with those demographics in the pool from which the top performers emerge. This process systematically generates statistical discrimination against minority groups. Across two preregistered experiments in which participants make incentivized hiring decisions, we find that people who receive demographic information about the top performers fail to adjust for the demographic composition of the pool they receive information about. Study 1 (n = 3,002) uses a pool composition unbalanced toward male workers, reflective of some high-profile industries. Receiving information about the top performers' gender leads participants to infer gender differences where none exist. Study 2 (n = 2,000) shows the effect also occurs in a sample representative of the US population, where there are inherently fewer Black or Asian than White candidates. Here, participants infer performance differences across race that are opposite to actual performance differences.
    Date: 2022–07–01
  3. By: Oladipo, Oluwasheyi S. (State University of New York at Old Westbury); Shim, Hyoung Suk (CUNY - College of Staten Island)
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines firm owners' gender difference in labor demand. We estimate the average treatment effect (ATE) of female ownership on employment of the firm using the 2007 Survey of Business Owners (SBO) Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS), provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Because female microentrepreneurs potentially demand more labor so as to allocate time for household production, we hypothesize a condition under which female microentrepreneurs employ more, and that is, if they are free from financial constraints. We show first that the estimation of the ATE for female ownership can have a downward selection bias that may yield negative ATE estimates, and this downward selection bias comes from male owners being less financially constrained than female owners. We then perform the two-stage least squares (TSLS) estimation using two sets of instrumental variables (IVs), which are indicator variables for i) inheritance; and ii) loans from bank or family/friend. The estimation results present that the female owner effect on labor demand as local average treatment effect (LATE) is identified and consistently estimated by using the IVs. From the main model estimation, we find a positive and statistically significant female owner effect that female owners hire more employees than male owners by about 25.8%.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, gender, labor demand, startups
    JEL: G31 J16 J22 J23 L26 M13
    Date: 2022–11
  4. By: Arenas-Arroyo, Esther (Vienna University of Economics and Business); Fernández-Kranz, Daniel (IE Business School, Madrid); Nollenberger, Natalia (IE University)
    Abstract: Increases in mental health problems among adolescents have been concurrent with increased use of digital media, with bigger changes among girls after the mid-2010s. This study exploits exogenous variation in the deployment of optic fiber across Spanish provinces between 2007 and 2019 to analyze the effect of access to high-speed Internet (HSI) on hospital discharge diagnoses of behavioral and mental health cases among adolescents. We find a positive and significant impact on girls but not on boys. Exploring the mechanism behind these effects, we show that HSI increases addictive Internet use and significantly decreases time spent sleeping, doing homework, and socializing with family and friends. Girls again power all these effects. We find no evidence of an increase in online bullying. Finally, we show that fiber expansion harms the quality of the relationship between fathers and daughters, especially when that relationship suffers from a previous conflict. Our results help explain the observed widening gender gap in mental health among adolescents and are robust to various sensitivity tests.
    Keywords: high-speed internet, adolescents, mental health
    JEL: J13 J16 I10 I12 I18 H31 L86
    Date: 2022–11

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