nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒12‒05
two papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender patterns of EU exports: jobs and wage differentials By Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa; Piñero, Pablo; Rueda-Cantuche, Jose Manuel
  2. Streamlining for excellence discriminates against women: A study of research productivity of 2.7 mln scientists in 45 countries By Letki, Natalia; Biały, Grzegorz; Sankowski, Piotr; Walentek, Dawid

  1. By: Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa (DG Trade); Piñero, Pablo (DG Trade); Rueda-Cantuche, Jose Manuel (DG Trade)
    Abstract: Our paper provides new insights into the gender specific dimension of extra-EU exports. In 2019, the employment of more than 14 million women depended on EU exports to the world. The female share of exports related jobs however stood at only 38%, almost unchanged from its previous level in 2010. While exploring the drivers behind this gender specific employment gap, we find out that women are predominantly employed in the provision of services that are less tradable. In fact, the share of female workers in least-tradable sectors (defined as a sectoral openness of less than 15%) is close to 80%. Furthermore, while exploring the gender specific wage premium gap at EU level, our results show that although women benefit from a wage premium of 8%, their male co-workers enjoy a markedly higher wage premium of 11% at EU level.
    Keywords: international trade; employment; multi-regional input-output tables; EU; gender; wages
    JEL: F16 F17 J16
    Date: 2022–07–08
  2. By: Letki, Natalia; Biały, Grzegorz; Sankowski, Piotr; Walentek, Dawid (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Gender inequality in academia is well documented yet persistently difficult to eradicate. Here, we adopt a new perspective by investigating the effect of institutional design on gender gap in research productivity on the example of habilitation - a centralized performance assessment procedure. Using a new, population-based dataset comprising 2,704,688 researchers from 45 countries we show that the presence of a habilitation has unexpected gendering counter-effect on research productivity, as it systematically lowers performance of female, but not male researchers. We also show that while international mobility improves research productivity of both genders in both systems, in systems without habilitation the selection effect for mobile women is particularly strong, and their returns to mobility in terms of increased productivity are the smallest of all mobile groups. We conclude that centralised, top-down regulation of `excellence in science' causes irreparable damage to careers of female researchers.
    Date: 2022–10–30

This nep-gen issue is ©2022 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.