nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒11‒21
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender gap in politician performance and its determinants By Garcia-Hernandez, Ana; Grossman, Guy; Michelitch, Kristin
  2. COVID-19 and Gender Differences in the Labor Market: Evidence from the Peruvian Economy By Giannina Vaccaro; Tania Paredes
  3. Managing bank liquidity hoarding during uncertain times : The role of board gender diversity By Davydov, Denis; Garanina, Tatiana; Weill, Laurent
  4. Increasing Inequality and Voting for Basic Income: Could Gender Inequality Worsen? By Creina Day

  1. By: Garcia-Hernandez, Ana; Grossman, Guy; Michelitch, Kristin
    Abstract: Women politicians face barriers that can undermine their performance relative to men. Using original micro-data from Uganda, we test for gender gaps in performance across different job duties in subnational legislatures. We hypothesize, and find, that performance gender gaps are greatest in job duties that require greater peer interaction (legislative duties), while no such gaps exist in more individually-performed duties (e.g., meeting with the electorate, facilitating constituency development). Fine-grained network data reveals women's informal exclusion in politician networks, and this exclusion holds explanatory power in explaining job duties requiring interaction with fellow politicians. Further, qualifications and previous experience also determine part of the gender performance gap in more intricate tasks. Moving forward, advocacy organizations may consider holding trainings and simulations with politicians on performing job duties in ways that encourage cross-gender professional network ties.
    Keywords: Politician performance,informal exclusion,networks,gender gap
    JEL: O10 H79 H83 H11
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Giannina Vaccaro (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.); Tania Paredes (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 and its confinement measures have generated a severe economic contraction around the world. However, there is still no consensus on the magnitude of its immediate effects, particularly in developing countries. Analysts have emphasized not only human capital losses but also an economic recession and increase in economic and social inequalities, including gender differences. Despite the Latin America (LA) countries are most affected in terms of deaths, most studies focus on the impact of COVID19 on developed countries. Using data from the National Household Surveys (ENAHO) from 2019-2021, we studied the impact of the COVID-19’S confinement measures on gender differences in the labor market in Peru, country with one of the biggest death rates. We found that the COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown measures accentuated gender inequality in labor market. Women have largely decreased the total hours worked than men, particularly due to the reduction of formal employment. More vulnerable women are low-skilled and those who have not worked remotely. JEL Classification-JE: J01 , J02 , J22 , O17.
    Keywords: COVID-19, employment, gender differences, impact analysis, Peru.
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Davydov, Denis; Garanina, Tatiana; Weill, Laurent
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of executive board gender diversity on the relationship between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and bank liquidity hoarding (LH). We focus on the Russian banking sector, which, relative to most of the world, has a high share of women on bank executive boards. Using the news-based EPU index developed by Baker, Bloom, and Davis (2016) and LH measures proposed by Berger, Guedhami, Kim, and Li (2022), we exploit a unique dataset from the Russian banking sector. While higher economic policy uncertainty tends to increase liquidity hoarding, we find this effect diminishes as gender diversity of the board increases. We attribute this finding to the moderating influence of gender diversity on stability and overreaction in decision-making. Additionally, we find that the channel through which board gender diversity affects the impact of economic policy uncertainty on liquidity hoarding takes place via the hoarding of liquid assets. Our findings are robust to the use of alternative measures for economic policy uncertainty and gender diversity. As women are still significantly under-represented on bank boards in most countries, these results argue for policies to promote gender diversity of bank boards as a means of limiting detrimental effects of economic policy uncertainty.
    JEL: G18 G21 G34 P26
    Date: 2022–11–02
  4. By: Creina Day
    Abstract: This paper examines the link between political support for basic income funded by linear income taxation and income inequality by household and gender. We develop a model with an increasingly right-skewed distribution of skill across households and a gender wage gap within households. Household preference for basic income decreases as skill level increases and female labour supply decreases with time spent rearing children. Majority voting supports the basic income scheme as mean relative to median household skill increases. Household fertility and skill level are inversely related under the scheme. An increase in the marginal tax rate to fund required government revenue could excacerbate gender inequality by reducing female labour supply. Quantitative illustrations suggest that the recent peak in the mean to median wage gap would provide voting support for basic income from the majority of households in the United States. Basic income of $12,000 conditional on below-median wages would increase government spending by 10.8% which, if funded by progressive income taxation, could reduce the adverse effects on gender inequality.
    Keywords: Basic income, Taxation, Gender inequality, Fertility
    JEL: C60 H24 H53 J13 J16
    Date: 2022–09

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