nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒11‒14
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. How do quantitative gender indicators compare to qualitative findings in the analysis of gender differences in agricultural productivity? Evidence from Uganda By Welk, Lukas; Bosch, Christine; Bryan, Elizabeth; Kato, Edward; Seymour, Greg; Birner, Regina
  2. Gender diversity, labour in the boardroom and gender quotas By Kunze, Astrid; Katrin Scharfenkamp, Katrin
  3. Sexual identity and Gender Gap in Leadership. A political intention experiment By Mourelatos, Evangelos; Krimpas, George; Giotopoulos, Konstantinos
  4. Digitalization and entrepreneur’s gender: Evidence for Spanish SMEs in the service and retail sectors. By Alfonso Expósito; Amparo Sanchis-Llopis; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  5. Gender gaps in time devoted to Commuting: Evidence from Peru, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia By Campaña, Juan Carlos; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio
  6. Peers and stars: the role of gender among coinventors. By Caviggioli, Federico; Colombelli, Alessandra; Ravetti, Chiara

  1. By: Welk, Lukas; Bosch, Christine; Bryan, Elizabeth; Kato, Edward; Seymour, Greg; Birner, Regina
    Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa, female-managed plots often show a significant gap in productivity compared to men's plots. To examine these differences, a variable to determine who in the household controls agricultural plots is needed. There is variability in the ways in which gendered control over agricultural plots is defined and measured across studies. Many studies show that an in-depth analysis of intra-household relationships is necessary, as this is often a major unexplained factor in productivity differences. To contribute to filling this methodological gap, we estimate the productivity gap among male and female farmers in Uganda using three different identification approaches and conduct complementary qualitative research to investigate the underlying causes of these differences. The three approaches to define control over plots are: (1) gender of the plot manager, (2) gender of the main plot-level decision-maker and (3) on gender of decision-maker over income from the sale of crops. Results show significantly different gender productivity gaps of 16% (1), 43% (2) and 60% (3). Qualitative results confirm the variability in the way that households defined plot management, including multiple ways in which decisions are made or activities are distributed within households on jointly managed plots. Mixed-method research designs and improved gender variables for econometric models can contribute to a better understanding of gender productivity differences and better policy making aiming to reduce gender inequalities.
    Keywords: UGANDA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agriculture, productivity, female labour, women, gender, gender analysis, farmers, gender productivity gap, plot management, female-managed plots, mixed methods
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Kunze, Astrid (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Katrin Scharfenkamp, Katrin (University of Bielefeld)
    Abstract: This study investigates boards of (non-executive) directors and whether employee representation has a positive effect on gender diversity on boards. We exploit rich, newly assembled board–director matched panel data for Norway and Germany, which contain unique information on whether a director represents shareholders or employees during the period around 2008, when a Norwegian board gender quota came into effect. We present two novel results that challenge previous thinking about the effects of board gender quotas on women directors. First, we find a positive impact of employee representation before the gender quota reform on gender diversity. Second, although the Norwegian gender quota has increased the probability of a director being female, the effect through employee representation has relatively decreased after and the implementation of the reform. We discuss potential mechanisms and implications for the design of co-determination laws and gender quotas.
    Keywords: Affirmative action; employee representation; shared governance; co-determination; women; boards of directors; firm size
    JEL: G30 J16 K30 L21 L25 M54
    Date: 2022–10–31
  3. By: Mourelatos, Evangelos; Krimpas, George; Giotopoulos, Konstantinos
    Abstract: The underrepresentation of women and homosexuals in leadership positions has been well documented, but the grounds for this need further investigation. We conduct a field and an online experiment to test a prominent theory about the sources of the sexual and gender gap in political leadership ambition: women's and homosexuals' higher aversion to engage to competitive environments. Within an experimental political environment as a context for our research, we employ two distinct subject sample pools - highly politically active individuals and workers from an online labor market. By controlling for a variety of internal and external factors and preference-based indicators, we establish that there are fundamental sexual and gender behavioral differences, stemming from differences in underlying psychological abilities and differences due to the nature of electoral competition. We find that priming individuals to consider the competitive nature of politics has a strong negative effect on women's and homosexuals' interest to run for a political office, but not on men's and heterosexuals' interest, hence significantly increasing the gender and sexual gap in leadership ambition. While on the online experiment the gender gap holds, surprisingly, we found that homosexuals' intention to participate in politics follows the opposite course.
    Keywords: sexual gap,Gender gap,leadership,politics,experiment
    JEL: D01 D91 C93
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Alfonso Expósito (University of Málaga, Spain); Amparo Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain)
    Abstract: This study investigates the role of the entrepreneur’s gender on digitalization strategies undertaken by SMEs in the service and retail sectors. Specifically, we aim at testing how the gender of the entrepreneur may affect investment in software and equipment related to information and communication technologies (ICT). We use a sample of 1,041 Spanish businesses and estimate a bivariate probit model for these two decisions, controlling for other entrepreneurial and business characteristics. Results indicate a higher probability of male entrepreneurs to invest in software and ICT equipment, as compared to women. Furthermore, we find that entrepreneurial risk-taking and business’ innovation capabilities are important drivers for engaging in these two digitalisation strategies, regardless of the gender of the entrepreneur, and that entrepreneurial proactiveness is especially important for women entrepreneurs, since the positive impact of entrepreneurial proactiveness on the probability to engage in digitalisation strategies is stronger in women-led businesses. This study provides new empirical evidence on the role of entrepreneur’s gender in SMEs regarding their digitalisation strategies.
    Keywords: Gender of entrepreneur; small and medium-enterprises; digitalisation strategies; information and communication technologies; bivariate probit model.
    JEL: C35 J16 M21 L26
    Date: 2022–10
  5. By: Campaña, Juan Carlos; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio
    Abstract: We analyze the relationship between gender and the time devoted to commuting by men and women in Latin American Countries. Using data from time surveys from Peru (2010), Ecuador (2012), Chile (2015) and Colombia (2012 and 2017), we observe in the four countries, that women devoted less time to this activity compared to men. We find that among the possible justifications for these gender gaps, it is important to consider the presence of children in the household, the hours of work and the type of employment of individuals. These results illustrate the importance of studying this topic in countries where the evidence is scarce mainly due to limitations in comparing the data between countries.
    Keywords: Time Use,Commuting,Gender Gaps,Latin America countries
    JEL: D10 J22
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Caviggioli, Federico; Colombelli, Alessandra; Ravetti, Chiara (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This article examines the role of gender in patent inventors’ collaborations and individual productivity. We study how the time needed by an inventor to eventually become a “star” relates to their portfolio of female and male coinventors, characterised in terms of gender, career seniority and productivity. Our empirical analysis applies different survival models to a sample of almost 100k inventors debuting in 2000 and all their patenting peers, followed over a period of 20 years. We find that being female and having female coinventors is correlated to a longer time to become star and that is not a matter of homopily. Seniority is also correlated to a longer time, while having a star among coinventors to a shorter time, in particular for female inventors. These findings confirm the presence of a relevant gender bias and suggest a potential beneficial mentoring/role model mechanism with stars being a strong catalyst of other stars, especially when among women.
    Date: 2022–10

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