nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒10‒31
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Social Norms and Gender Equality : A Descriptive Analysis for South Asia By Bussolo,Maurizio; Ezebuihe,Jessy Amarachi; Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria; Poupakis,Stavros; Rahman,Tasmia; Sarma,Nayantara
  2. Feedback, Gender, and Choking under Pressure: Evidence from Alpine Skiing By Christoph Buehren; Martin Gschwend; Alex Krumer
  3. Gender Differences in Socio-Emotional Skills and Economic Outcomes : New Evidencefrom 17 African Countries By Ajayi,Kehinde; Das,Smita; Delavallade,Clara Anne; Ketema,Tigist Assefa; Rouanet,Lea Marie
  4. Gender Gaps at the Academies By David Card; Stefano DellaVigna; Patricia Funk; Nagore Iriberri
  5. Women's Wages and Empowerment : Pre-industrial Japan, 1600-1890 By Kumon, Yuzuru; Sakai, Kazuho
  6. Using Social Media to Change Gender Norms : An Experiment within Facebook Messenger in India By Donati,Dante; Orozco Olvera,Victor Hugo; Rao,Nandan Mark

  1. By: Bussolo,Maurizio; Ezebuihe,Jessy Amarachi; Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria; Poupakis,Stavros; Rahman,Tasmia; Sarma,Nayantara
    Abstract: Despite decades of economic growth, gender inequality in South Asia remains remarkably high.Although not the only one, social norms are a crucial driver of various gender outcomes, including differential economicparticipation. Using repeated cross-sectional data from nationally representative surveys, this paper explores thelong term trends of gender outcomes and social norms (proxied by attitudes towards gender roles) in South Asia.The results corroborate the evidence that there has been almost no progress in gender equality in South Asia over thepast half-century. There has been little progress on female labor force participation, marriage age, agency, intimatepartner violence, and preference for sons, with education being the only exception. The lack of progress is apparentamong all socioeconomic groups, including women who live in urban areas, are educated, and have higher incomes. Genderattitudes also remain unchanged, and in some cases, have become more conservative and have a negative relationshipwith gender outcomes. Better measurements of social normsand better understanding of how their constraining role can be loosened may be critical for achieving gender equality inthe region.
    Date: 2022–08–16
  2. By: Christoph Buehren (Ruhr-University Bochum); Martin Gschwend (University of St. Gallen); Alex Krumer (Molde University College)
    Abstract: In alpine skiing competitions, one of the coaches of the participating countries sets the course. This may provide an advantage, but it may also exert higher pressure on the racers. We analyze 40,150 men’s and 36,968 women’s performances from all competitions in alpine skiing’s Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Super Giant disciplines that took place in the World Cups, World Championships, and Olympic Games between the 2001-02 and 2017-2018 seasons. We compare the performance of racers when competing on a course that was set by their compatriot to the performance of the same racers in the same season when the course was set by a coach from another country. Having a compatriot course setter only has an effect in the second (and decisive) run of the most technical discipline Slalom. We find that men fail significantly more often to complete their run when their compatriots set the course, whereas women fail significantly less in the same situation. The most likely drivers of our results relate to gender differences in response to feedback and choking under pressure in skill-based tasks.
    Keywords: Alpine skiing; choking under pressure; gender differences; panel data
    JEL: C33 C93 D91 J16 J24 Z20
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Ajayi,Kehinde; Das,Smita; Delavallade,Clara Anne; Ketema,Tigist Assefa; Rouanet,Lea Marie
    Abstract: Using data from 41,873 individuals across 17 African countries and 13 studies, this paper mapsdata from various self-reported scales to 10 socio-emotional skills and examine gender differences in these skills andtheir relationship with education and earnings. Apart from self-control, the findings show a significant male advantagein self-reported skills—men have an aggregate socio-emotional skill level 0.151 standard deviations higherthan women, equivalent to the socio-emotional skill gained over 5.6 years of education. This is robust to controllingfor positive self-concept. Closing the gender gap in education would close 17percent of this gap. While overallsocio-emotional skill and education are positively correlated for both men and women, women do not have apositive correlation with education for some individual socio-emotional skills. The male advantage insocio-emotional skills increases at higher education levels. Socio-emotional skills are associated with higher earnings,especially for women. However, the specific skills associated with higher earnings differ by gender.Interpersonal skills are more strongly correlated with earnings for women than for men, and measures of theseskills are often underrepresented, which indicates a key direction for future research. The paper further examinesdifferences in the relationship between socio-emotional skills and earnings by levels of education and occupation.It discusses the implications of these results for interventions seeking to hone women’s socio-emotional skillsfor labor market success and to address the gender norms that may perpetuate gaps in socio-emotional skills.
    Date: 2022–10–03
  4. By: David Card; Stefano DellaVigna; Patricia Funk; Nagore Iriberri
    Abstract: Historically, a large majority of the newly elected members of the National Academy of Science (NAS) and the American Academy of Arts and Science (AAAS) were men. Within the past two decades, however, that situation has changed, and in the last 3 years women made up about 40 percent of the new members in both academies. We build lists of active scholars from publications in the top journals in three fields – Psychology, Mathematics and Economics – and develop a series of models to compare changes in the probability of selection of women as members of the NAS and AAAS from the 1960s to today, controlling for publications and citations. In the early years of our sample, women were less likely to be selected as members than men with similar records. By the 1990s, the selection process at both academies was approximately gender-neutral, conditional on publications and citations. In the past 20 years, however, a positive preference for female members has emerged and strengthened in all three fields. Currently, women are 3-15 times more likely to be selected as members of the AAAS and NAS than men with similar publication and citation records.
    JEL: J15 J16 O30
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Kumon, Yuzuru; Sakai, Kazuho
    Abstract: Using new evidence from servant contracts, 1600-1890, we estimate women's wages in Japan. Women's wages could only sustain 1.5-2 people up to 1900, the lowest recorded in the pre-industrial world. We then show the gender wage ratio was 0.7, higher than in Western Europe. Despite this, Japan had lower female empowerment for two reasons. First, absolute wages were low, so women were not economically autonomous. Second, landownership incomes were mostly earned by men, raising their bargaining positions. Low female empowerment in Japan could also explain the early and universal marriage of its women unlike their empowered Western European counterparts.
    Date: 2022–09
  6. By: Donati,Dante; Orozco Olvera,Victor Hugo; Rao,Nandan Mark
    Abstract: This paper experimentally tests the effectiveness of two short edutainment campaigns (under 25minutes) delivered through Facebook Messenger at reshaping gender norms and reducing social acceptability of violenceagainst women in India. Participants were randomly assigned to watch video clips with implicit or explicit messagingformats (respectively a humorous fake reality television drama or a docuseries with clear calls to action). After oneweek, the intent-to-treat effects of the implicit format on knowledge, gender norms, and acceptability of violenceagainst women oscillated between 0.16 and 0.21 standard deviations yet impacts diminished after four months. Bycontrast, the explicit format was more impactful in the short term in increasing willingness to share video clipswith friends and promoting online information-seeking behaviors. In the medium term, individuals who were exposedto the docuseries were 91 percent (7.5 percentage points) more likely to add a frame against violence against women intheir Facebook profile picture, a public display of their disapproval of this harmful practice. The general lack ofheterogeneous effects across social status indicators suggests social media as a potential medium for reachingdifferent online populations, including vulnerable ones.
    Date: 2022–10–05

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