nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒10‒17
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. City Size, Family Migration, and Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Rural-Urban Migrants in China By Xing, Chunbing; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Junfu
  2. Is There a Motherhood Gap in the Willingness to Compete for Pay? By Aurélie Dariel; Nikos Nikiforakis
  3. Gender, motivation, and self-selection into teaching By Barigozzi, Francesca; Parasnis, Jaai; Tani, Massimiliano
  4. Parental Leave Benefits and Child Penalties By Sevrin Waights

  1. By: Xing, Chunbing (Renmin University of China); Yuan, Xiaoyan (Shanghai University); Zhang, Junfu (Clark University)
    Abstract: Finding suitable employment in a city is more challenging for married than unmarried migrants. This paper provides empirical evidence that the denser and more diversified labor markets in large cities help alleviate the colocation problem of married couples. Using data from China, we show that the gender wage gap among married migrants is significantly smaller in larger cities, and this is mainly because large cities have higher employer and population densities. Large cities make married women more likely to be employed and to secure suitable jobs after family migration. We find no evidence for alternative explanations for the correlation between city size and married women's relative wages.
    Keywords: city size, family migration, colocation choice, gender gap
    JEL: J31 R12 R23 O15
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: Aurélie Dariel; Nikos Nikiforakis (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: A substantial fraction of the gender gap in earnings is due to wage disparities between women with and without children. Inspired by evidence linking labor market outcomes with attitudes toward competition, we explore the association between motherhood and the willingness to compete for pay. In two behavioral studies, we find that mothers are considerably less likely to choose a competitive payment scheme than similar women without children. Fathers are as willing to compete as non-fathers. The motherhood gap is not mediated by differences in ability, beliefs, risk attitudes, marital status, parental education, parental employment, or the time since the last pregnancy.
    Date: 2022–09
  3. By: Barigozzi, Francesca (University of Bologna); Parasnis, Jaai (Monash University); Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in choosing a teaching career using data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. We find that the opportunity costs of becoming a teacher vary by gender: women enjoy a small wage premium, whilst males suffer a large wage penalty. We also find that non-monetary aspects and job amenities (such as motivation for the job, job security, and work/family life balance) have a different influence on teaching careers by gender, which can influence the sorting of male and female teachers across government and private schools. Notwithstanding evidence of positive selection into teaching in terms of cognitive ability and motivation for the job, the asymmetries in opportunity costs and non-monetary aspects reveal that introducing differentiated contracts tailored to gender preferences may influence teachers' recruitment by gender. However, we caution that such prospective initiatives need to balance the trade-off between attracting talented and motivated individuals into teaching and promoting gender equality, which arises from the data.
    Keywords: teacher, incentives, Australia, decomposition
    JEL: I21 J16 J24 J31 M52
    Date: 2022–09
  4. By: Sevrin Waights
    Abstract: I use the universe of tax returns in Germany and a regression kink design to estimate the impact of the benefit amount available to high-earning women after their first childbirth on subsequent within-couple earnings inequality. Lower benefit amounts result in a reduced earnings gap that persists beyond the benefit period for at least nine years after the birth. The longer-term impacts are driven by couples where the mother earned more than the father pre-birth. Simulations suggest it would take a 50% reduction in the benefit amount to completely eliminate long-run child penalties for sample couples. Lower benefits also reduce take-up of paid leave by mothers, lower the chances of having further children, and have no impact on marital stability.
    Keywords: Child penalties, gender inequality in earnings, social norms, parental leave policy, regression kink design
    JEL: D63 H31 J13 J16 K31 M52 Z13
    Date: 2022

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