nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒10‒03
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Identifying and Overcoming Gender Barriers in Tech: A Field Experiment on Inaccurate Statistical Discrimination By Jan Feld; Edwin Ip; Andreas Leibbrandt; Joseph Vecci
  2. Enhancing gender diversity on boards and in senior management of listed companies By Emeline Denis
  3. Lady Justice: The impact of female judges on trials' verdicts in US By Alessandra Foresta
  4. Race, Gender and Poverty: Evidence from Brazilian Data By Yeutseyeva, Sasha; Deguilhem, Thibaud
  5. Board of Director Characteristics and Firm Performance for firms listed on Iraq Stock Exchange By Star, Miran
  6. Wealth Accumulation and the Gender Wealth Gap Across Couples’ Legal Statuses and Matrimonial Property Regimes in France By Nicolas Frémeaux; Marion Leturcq
  7. Couples, Careers, and Spatial Mobility By Lea Nassal; Marie Paul
  8. Partner’s income shock and female labor supply. Evidence from the repeal of Argentina’s convertibility law By Laurine Martinoty

  1. By: Jan Feld (School of Economics and Finance, Victoria University of Wellington); Edwin Ip (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Andreas Leibbrandt (Department of Economics, Monash University); Joseph Vecci (Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: Women are significantly underrepresented in the technology sector. We design a field experiment to identify statistical discrimination in job applicant assessments and test treatments to help improve hiring of the best applicants. In our experiment, we measure the programming skills of job applicants for a programming job. Then, we recruit a sample of employers consisting of human resource and tech professionals and incentivize them to assess the performance of these applicants based on their resumes. We find evidence consistent with inaccurate statistical discrimination: while there are no significant gender differences in performance, employers believe that female programmers perform worse than male programmers. This belief is strongest among female employers, who are more prone to selection neglect than male employers. We also find experimental evidence that statistical discrimination can be mitigated. In two treatments, in which we provide assessors with additional information on the applicants' aptitude or personality, we find no gender differences in the perceived applicant performance. Together, these findings show the malleability of statistical discrimination and provide levers to improve hiring and reduce gender imbalance.
    Keywords: inaccurate beliefs, discrimination, gender, field experiment
    JEL: J71 D90 C93
    Date: 2022–09–16
  2. By: Emeline Denis (OECD)
    Abstract: As part of a global effort to address existing barriers to gender equality in leadership and employment, countries around the world are taking steps to enhance gender diversity on boards, which can also have positive effects on board dynamics and governance. This paper takes stock of progress and existing policies and practices to enhance gender diversity on boards and in senior management of listed companies. Covering 50 jurisdictions, it focuses on the implications of quotas and targets as the main instruments used to foster gender diversity on boards, and considers the importance of complementary initiatives to strengthen the pipeline for leadership positions.
    Date: 2022–09–20
  3. By: Alessandra Foresta
    Abstract: This work evaluates the role of judges' gender on jury trials verdicts in the US state of North Carolina. My identification strategy is based on judges' rotation across districts and fixed effects. The results indicate that, in trials presided by female judges, juries are more likely to express guilty verdicts. I implement a series of robustness checks (different models' specifications, defendants' characteristics, district sizes, judges' types, judges' experience and workloads) and a series of heterogeneity checks (judges' characteristics, types of crimes and jurors' gender). Finally, I discuss the possible mechanisms behind these findings and I explore the impact of the jury selection process, the role of judges' toughness and the attitudes of women towards courts and sentencing.
    Keywords: Gender, Judge, Trials behaviours
    JEL: K10 K40 J16
    Date: 2022–09
  4. By: Yeutseyeva, Sasha; Deguilhem, Thibaud
    Abstract: Race and gender are commonly considerated as two of the most important structural factors associated with unequal socioeconomic systems. Previous research has found that these factors are significant for explaining the income inequality in Latin America and particularly in Brazil. This study aims to address whether both determinants predict an individual’s chances of being in poverty in Brazil, using national dataset and articulating different econometric strategies. Overall, being a woman had a small positive impact on an individual’s predicted chance of poverty and only in a probability linear specification. We think that this result does not align well with previous literature because of the selection bias affecting women labor market participation. However, evidence of strong and robust racial differenciation in Brazil was present. Discussing the representativeness of the sample, this study highlights the importance of data quality as well as the relevance of using various statistical methods.
    Keywords: Brazil, poverty, race, gender, inequality
    JEL: J15 J16 N96
    Date: 2022–08–31
  5. By: Star, Miran
    Abstract: In this project, we evaluate the firm performance and the board, and what make the board and performance, relations in the stock firms, which is owned by more than owner, and we make our research based on Iraq, and we took the firm performance, of the Iraq firms, which are in, Iraq stock exchange, which we took the 2019, for the measuring the firms, performances, and for the board of director, we make three variables, which each having effect on the board, which were the first the size of the board, the second one is the CEO duality in the board, and the third one is the gender diversity, which is focus on the female ratio, and the board make the decision, which the result be the performance of the firm, which the board decision make impact on the performance, in a way which if the performance, doesn’t go well, the board will responsible for it. For that we try to find the relation between the effective factor of the board, and their effect on the performance.
    Keywords: board size, CEO duality, female member, firm performance
    JEL: G34 M41
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Nicolas Frémeaux (LEMMA - Laboratoire d'économie mathématique et de microéconomie appliquée - Université Paris-Panthéon-Assas); Marion Leturcq (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques)
    Abstract: This paper examines wealth accumulation among couple-headed households and investigates changes in within-household inequality over time and across couple statuses. Going beyond previous research that mostly studies wealth accumulation within marriages by comparing married with unmarried individuals, we consider the legal statuses of couples (cohabitation, civil union, and marriage) and property regimes (community and separate property). We apply multivariate regression analysis to high-quality longitudinal data from the French wealth survey (2015–2018) and find no differences in net worth accumulation between couples' legal statuses when property regimes are not accounted for. However, couples with a separate property regime accumulate more wealth than couples with a community property regime, and married couples with a separate property regime drive this association. Our results show that the gender wealth gap is larger for couples with a separate property regime, but it is partially compensated by accumulated wealth. Our results highlight the importance of legal statuses and property regimes in explaining the dynamics of between- and within-household inequality in France, specifically within a context of increasingly diversified marital trajectories.
    Keywords: wealth,gender inequality,marriage,marital property regime,civil union,France
    Date: 2022–08–09
  7. By: Lea Nassal (Lea Nassal); Marie Paul (Marie Paul)
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of long-distance moves of married couples on both spouses’ earnings, employment and job characteristics based on a new administrative dataset from Germany. Employing difference-in-difference propensity score matching and accounting for spouses’ pre-move employment biographies, we show that men’s earnings increase significantly after the move, whereas women suffer large losses in the first years. Men’s earnings increases are mainly driven by increasing wages and switches to slightly larger and better paying firms. Investigating effect heterogeneity with respect to pre-move relative earnings or for whose job opportunity couples move, confirms strong gender asymmetries in gains to moving.
    Keywords: Long-distance moves, labour market careers, gender gap
    JEL: J61 J16 R23
    Date: 2022–09
  8. By: Laurine Martinoty (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Female employment is an important vector of economic development. Using data on couples in urban Argentina from 1996 to 2007, I show that in the short and medium term necessity shapes female participation and employment at the extensive and intensive margins. More specifically, I study how women's labor supply reacts to negative income shocks affecting their partner. In order to assess the causal impact, I exploit the unexpected evolution of the economic environment triggered by the repeal of the convertibility law in January 2002 to instrument men's job loss. I find that women's probability of participating and finding a job is multiplied by 2 upon their partner's displacement. Turning to the dynamics of their labor supply, contrary to expectations, however, women do not symmetrically withdraw from the labor market once their partner finds a job. Evidence on repeated cross-sections confirms that the labor supply response persists long after the economic recovery. My findings are among the first attempts to evaluate the participation effects of temporary shocks in the medium term.
    Keywords: female labor force,female employment,intra-household allocation
    Date: 2022

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