nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒09‒26
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The effect of gender norms on gender-based sorting across occupations By Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
  2. The UK Gender Pay Gap: Does Firm Size Matter? By Jones, Melanie; Kaya, Ezgi
  3. The Motherhood Penalty in China: Having A Child Increases Gender Inequality in the Labor Market By Zhang, Mingxue; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Yue
  4. Physical proximity and occupational employment change by gender during the COVID-19 pandemic By Jacqueline Mosomi; Amy Thornton
  5. The outsourcing wage penalty along the wage distribution by gender By FANA Marta; GIANGREGORIO Luca; VILLANI Davide
  6. Gendered parenting and the intergenerational transmission of gendered stereotypes: Evidence from the Growing Up in New Zealand survey By Livvy Mitchell; Isabelle Sin; Maanaima Soa-Lafoai; Colleen Ward
  7. The power of the (red) pill in Europe: pharmaceutical innovation and female empowerment By Annarita Macchioni Giaquinto

  1. By: Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
    Abstract: Despite the notable progress that has been made in bridging the gap between women and men in the world of work, women are still underrepresented in several occupations. In this article, the effect of gender norms on whether women enter male-dominated occupations is analysed using differences in gender equality among early-arrival migrants. The variations in gender norms according to the cultural backgrounds of those migrants by country of origin are exploited to identify their impact on occupational choices. Using data from the American Community Survey, it is found that greater gender equality in the country of origin reduces the gender gap in maledominated occupations. Suggestive evidence is further shown on the roles of job flexibility and women's relative preferences for family-friendly jobs in shaping gender-based sorting across occupations.
    Keywords: culture,gender,occupation,remote work
    JEL: J24 J16 Z13
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Jones, Melanie; Kaya, Ezgi
    Abstract: Motivated by the introduction of the UK Gender Pay Gap Reporting legislation to large firms, defined as over 250 employees, we use linked employee-employer panel data from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings to explore pre-legislation variation in the gender pay gap by firm size. In doing so, we integrate two prominent but distinct empirical regularities in the labour economics literature, namely the gender pay gap and firm-size wage premium. We find evidence of both a larger raw and unexplained gender pay gap among large relative to smaller firms in the UK private sector even after controlling for unobserved worker heterogeneity, consistent with the legislation being effectively targeted. However, this conclusion changes after accounting for unobserved firm level heterogeneity and focusing on within-firm gender pay gaps. Large firms have smaller within-firm raw gender pay gaps and similar unexplained gender pay gaps when compared to smaller firms. We find that this conclusion is not specific to the current firm size threshold of 250 employees but holds more generally, including at proposed extensions of the legislation to smaller firms.
    Keywords: gender pay gap,firm-size wage premium,linked employee-employer panel data,pay transparency
    JEL: J31 J71 J78
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Zhang, Mingxue; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Yue
    Abstract: Using a comprehensive individual panel dataset in China and an event study method, we examined the effects of having a child on gender inequality from the perspectives of labor market outcomes and its mechanisms. Results show that becoming a mother implies a sharp decline in labor earnings, labor market participation, working hours and wage rate, while fathers' outcomes remain unaffected. These outcomes are driven by two potential channels: career choices and social norms. After having a child, mothers have a higher likelihood for engaging in informal jobs and less possibility of being promoted if they work in the formal sector. Moreover, social norms towards gender roles lead mothers to devote more time to housework and babysit, which generate motherhood earnings penalty in labor market. Finally, well-being analysis shows that subjective happiness and life satisfaction of both males and females are barely not changed after childbirth, and females experience an increase in social status after child arrival.
    Keywords: motherhood penalty,gender inequality,gender gap,individual earnings
    JEL: J13 J16 J22 J31 D13
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Jacqueline Mosomi; Amy Thornton
    Abstract: Previous economic downturns such as the 2008-09 Global Financial Crisis disproportionately affected male employment due to greater contractions in industries typically filled by men (e.g., manufacturing). However, after the imposition of the 'hard' COVID-19 lockdown between 2020 quarter 1 and 2 in South Africa, both men and women lost about a million jobs. We show a higher ratio of female-to-male job loss in the 2020 recession compared to 2008-09 is partly explained by South African women's clustering in occupations high in physical proximity (e.g., services).
    Keywords: COVID-19, Gender, Employment, Lockdown, Pandemic
    Date: 2022
  5. By: FANA Marta (European Commission - JRC); GIANGREGORIO Luca; VILLANI Davide (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This paper studies if and to what extent the outsourced status entails a wage penalty for workers during the period 2005–2019 in France and how these differences vary between genders. Our findings show that workers in outsourced jobs suffer a wage penalty which is higher for female workers compared to male ones. The outsourcing penalty does not depend on part-time arrangements, the repetitive nature of the job nor sector of employment. The effect of these covariates adds to the direct effect, but only for female workers. The longitudinal analysis reinforces cross-sectional results: the outsourcing wage penalty is not due to changes in individual characteristics of the workers, but to differences in the job status and time-invariant characteristics between them. Overall, being an outsourced worker implies a worsening in the wage treatment and the gender gaps which, considering the expansion of this practice, lead to important policy issues.
    Keywords: subcontracting, gender gap, wages, labour market, tasks
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Livvy Mitchell (AUT); Isabelle Sin (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Maanaima Soa-Lafoai (K?inga Ora - Homes and Communities); Colleen Ward (Victoria University of Wellington)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes and inequality in Aotearoa New Zealand from parents to their young children. We explore whether the parenting of boy and girl children differs in such a way that perpetuates traditional Western gender stereotypes and gendered expectations, and for which groups gendered parenting is most prevalent. We use the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) study, a longitudinal survey of around 7,000 children born in 2009/10 in Auckland, Waikato, and Counties-Manukau. Overall, the differences in parenting by the child’s sex are not large enough to explain the gender inequality between adults in Aotearoa New Zealand. We infer that external structural factors outside parents’ control likely play a primary role in perpetuating potentially harmful gender inequality. Parents alone cannot end the cycle of harmful gender inequalities, particularly since they are often pressured to parent within society’s gendered structural constrains.
    Keywords: Gender inequality, economic outcomes
    Date: 2022–09
  7. By: Annarita Macchioni Giaquinto (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
    Abstract: Birth control is fundamental for gender equality and women’s empowerment. Historically, oral contraceptives, most notably the pill, transferred from men to women the control on contraception, shifting out the frontier of women’s available choices in terms of educational and career planning. This paper uses a quasi-experimental design exploiting the staggered and uncoordinated introduction of the contraceptive pill on-demand to young, adult, unmarried women in 14 European countries between the 60s and 80s to explore the causal link between the pharmaceutical innovation of oral contraceptives and further female achievements. Using SHARE data, results show that the pill induced a significant and sizable increase in women’s educational attainments and labour market outcomes due to higher human capital investments.
    Keywords: pharmaceutical innovation, contraception, education, labour market, women’s empowerment, gender equality
    JEL: J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2022

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