nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒07‒11
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Female Political Representation and Violence Against Women: Evidence from Brazil By Magdalena Delaporte; Francisco Pino
  2. Guilt Aversion: Eve versus Adam By Giovanni Di Bartolomeo; Martin Dufwenberg; Stefano Papa; Laura Razzolini
  3. Job Location Decisions and the Effect of Children on the Employment Gender Gap By Albanese, Andrea; Nieto, Adrián; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos
  4. Earnings Discrimination in the Workplace By Forth, John; Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos
  5. Variation in Parenthood Wage Effect: A human capital approach By Maria Petrillo

  1. By: Magdalena Delaporte; Francisco Pino
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of female political representation on violence against women. Using a Regression Discontinuity design for close mayoral elections between female and male candidates in Brazil, we find that electing female mayors leads to a reduction in episodes of gender violence. The effect is particularly strong when focusing on incidents of domestic violence, when the aggressor is the ex-husband/boyfriend, and when victims experienced sexual violence. The evidence suggests that female mayors might implement different policies from male mayors and therefore contribute to reduce gender violence.
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Giovanni Di Bartolomeo; Martin Dufwenberg; Stefano Papa; Laura Razzolini
    Abstract: Our study contributes to a large literature in experimental economics that explores gender differences in how people are motivated. We focus on guilt aversion (GA), a surprisingly rather unexplored issue. Our experiment supports the idea that men are more GA than women. Our results also support different rationales to explain observed similar behaviors, like promise keeping. We provide a potential intuition for our findings, which is based on the pregnancy-related biological asymmetry between genders.
    Keywords: gender; guilt aversion; promises; evolutionary psychology
    JEL: A13 C91 D03 D64
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: Albanese, Andrea; Nieto, Adrián; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos
    Abstract: We study the effect of childbirth on local and non-local employment dynamics for both men and women using Belgian social security and geo-location data. Applying an eventstudy design that accounts for treatment effect heterogeneity, we show that 75 percent of the effect of the birth of a first child on the overall gender gap in employment is accounted for by gender disparities in non-local employment, with mothers being more likely to give up non-local employment compared to fathers. This gender specialisation is mostly driven by opposing job location responses of men and women to individual, household and regional factors. On the one hand, men do not give up non-local employment after childbirth when they are employed in a high-paid job, have a partner who is not participating in the labour market or experience adverse local labour market conditions, suggesting that fathers trade off better employment opportunities with longer commutes. On the other hand, women give up non-local jobs regardless of their earnings level, their partner's labour market status and local economic conditions, which is consistent with mothers specialising in childcare provision compared to fathers.
    Keywords: gender gap,childbirth,job location,cross-border employment,specialisation
    JEL: J13 J16 J61 C21 C23 J22 R23
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Forth, John; Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of theory and empirical evidence on earnings discrimination within the workplace. Earnings discrimination occurs when employees producing work of equal value are differentially remunerated because of their social group. The paper reviews theories of why employers may discriminate in this way. The paper then goes on to review research evidence on earnings discrimination as one source of earnings inequality within the workplace. The ability of empirical studies to identify discrimination is discussed, and evidence on the mechanisms through which discrimination may affect earnings is reviewed, covering observational and experimental studies. The research evidence is most plentiful in respect of discrimination by gender. Accordingly, much of the discussion focuses on the role of discrimination in driving a wedge between the wages of men and women. However, the paper also reviews evidence on earnings discrimination by race or ethnic group. It concludes with a discussion of policy responses.
    Keywords: earnings discrimination,gender wage gap,ethnic wage gap
    JEL: J71 J31
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Maria Petrillo
    Abstract: Using German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) microdata this paper contributes new empirical evidence by examining the implications of motherhood and fatherhood for wages of a sample of women and men between 2005-2015. Making use, for the first time for this research question, of a difference-in-differences approach, the study uncovers inequalities among women and men in terms of parenthood wage effects. Moreover, the study takes this analysis a step further and investigates additional possible correlations between educational background (vocational versus general background) and motherhood wage gaps by exploiting, for the first time, the difference between skills acquired through a vocational educational path versus those developed following a general one, as one of the keys factors to help to shed light on the motherhood wage gap. Results support the idea that women with a vocational background suffer from a wider motherhood wage penalty if compared to those women having a general background, which is likely due to the higher rate of vocational skills depreciation.
    Keywords: motherhood, fatherhood, wage penalty, gender, inequality, education.
    Date: 2022–05–05

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