nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒06‒27
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Beliefs about gender differences in social preferences By Christine L. Exley; Oliver P. Hauser; Molly Moore; John-Henry Pezzuto
  2. How Is the Career Choice of a Medical Speciality Dependent on Gender Inequality in the Region By Lenka Slegerova
  3. Gender gaps in low and high-stakes assessments By Fabiana Rocha; Paula Pereda, Maria Dolores, Gabriel Monteiro, Luiza Karpavicius, Liz Matsunaga, Bruna Borges, Clara
  4. Math ability, gender stereotypes about math ability, and educational choices. Combining experimental and survey data By Dominique Cappelletti; Maria Vittoria Levati; Matteo Ploner

  1. By: Christine L. Exley (Harvard Business School, Harvard University); Oliver P. Hauser (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Molly Moore (Harward Kennedy School, Harvard University); John-Henry Pezzuto (Harvard Business School, Harvard University)
    Abstract: While there is a vast (and mixed) literature on gender differences in social preferences, little is known about believed gender differences in social preferences. This paper documents robust evidence for believed gender differences in social preferences. Across a wide range of contexts that vary in terms of strategic considerations, selfish motives, fairness concepts and applications, we find that individuals robustly expect that women are more generous and more equality-oriented. Despite the robustness of these beliefs, the believed gender gap in social preferences - in the range of contexts we consider - is largely inaccurate.
    Keywords: experiments, gender, altruism
    JEL: C91 D64 D91
    Date: 2022–06–02
  2. By: Lenka Slegerova (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: Using a unique survey of almost 2,000 Czech and Slovak medical students run in 2020 and 2021, the paper investigates whether gender inequality and stereotypes as proxied by the gender unemployment rate gap drive students' choices of specialities. The data suggest that the higher the gender unemployment rate gap in the region (by 1 p.p.), the higher the probability its permanent residents choose a respective gender-dominated speciality (by 3.9 p.p.). This effect is driven by men in the sample. However, women report significantly more frequently encountering discrimination during the undergraduate training (41% vs 23%), presumably influencing their speciality choices. The study demonstrates the need to combat the prevalent gender stereotypes and discriminatory behaviour.
    Keywords: gender inequality, medical speciality choice, unemployment gap
    JEL: I18 I23 J16
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: Fabiana Rocha; Paula Pereda, Maria Dolores, Gabriel Monteiro, Luiza Karpavicius, Liz Matsunaga, Bruna Borges, Clara
    Abstract: A comprehensive body of literature suggests that women do not perform as well as men in competitive settings. In this paper, we use individual-level administrative data to investigate if women and men respond differently to exam stakes in Brazil. We compare performances of students at the University of São Paulo in undergraduate Economics courses (low stakes) and in the national admission exam to Economics graduate programs (high stakes). We find evidence that women outperform men in undergraduate disciplines but underperform on the graduate admission exam. Our study indicates that there are indeed gender differences in low and high-stakes evaluations.
    Keywords: Gender; High-stakes assessments; Graduate admissions; Higher education
    JEL: I23 J16
    Date: 2022–06–02
  4. By: Dominique Cappelletti (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Maria Vittoria Levati (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Matteo Ploner (CEEL, University of Trento)
    Abstract: The underrepresentation of females in STEM fields negatively affects productivity growth and contributes to labour market inequalities. In countries where children are tracked in educational trajectories from high school (as in Italy, 8th grade), it is crucial to understand what drives gendered pathways before educational segregation starts. Collecting experimental and survey data from Italian 8th graders, we find that perceived comparisons with peers are predictors of the likelihood that girls choose a math-intensive track during high school. Policy initiatives improving girls' expectations about their relative math performance may thus encourage female students to pursue a STEM track.
    Keywords: School choice, Math ability, Gender stereotypes, Beliefs, STEM
    JEL: C93 J16 J24 I24
    Date: 2022–06

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