nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒05‒30
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Analysing Gender Equality at the Firm Level By Dania Eugenidis; Jan Kinne; David Lenz
  2. Gender in the workplace By Barbara Petrongolo
  3. Are Gender Norms Systematic to Caste Institutions? Examining preferences through a Social Experiment in North Indian Villages. By Aparajita Dasgupta; Ashokankur Datta
  4. Mental Health and Gender Inequality in the MENA Region: An Analysis of Shock Related Factors Within the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic By Anna SPINARDI; Nigora ISAMIDDINOVA; Irene CLAVIJO; Kevin HENKENS

  1. By: Dania Eugenidis (University of Giessen); Jan Kinne (ZEW); David Lenz (University of Giessen)
    Abstract: The role of gender in the labour force and potential inequalities between men and women have been widely discussed. Despite efforts to align gender roles in recent decades, high levels of inequality are not an exception but rather the standard. These inequalities can lead to the respective minorities’ general dissatisfaction, which affects the working atmosphere and ultimately a firm’s economic success (Hoogendoorn et al. 2013). Recent quantitative studies confirm this dissatisfaction exists. However, analyses only take place at a country or regional level. Therefore, conclusions can be drawn on an aggregated level, whereas underlying structural differences between individual firms remain undetected. Alternative ways to measure inequalities include qualitative studies for individual companies. However, no generalized inference can be made. Our proposed framework, the Gender Equality Firm Index (GEFI), allows for quantitative gender equality analysis at the company level. GEFIaims to explore the latent and the concrete implementation of gender equality in firms. Specifically, we derive firm-level measurements from large-scale data extraction of firm websites and combine them with official data. We consequently derive a gender equality score for each company, making it possible to draw conclusions at any given level of granularity. We demonstrate the applicability of our framework in a case study including nearly 1 million firms throughout Germany. Thereby, we find that mainly urban and western German firms in sectors such as health and social services comparably enforce gender equality the most, which is in line with the existing literature.
    Keywords: Gender Equality Index; Firm level studies; Web Minig; Germany; Gender
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Barbara Petrongolo
    Abstract: The influx of women into the workplace during the 20th century has been one of the most remarkable changes in the world of work. But in general, women are less likely to be employed than men, they are less likely to hold senior positions and they are paid less. Economists research the reasons for these gender-based inequalities and evaluate which policies can help to close the gaps. The Insights series is an introduction to the work of the Centre for Economic Performance. While the centre's roots are in labour economics, it has been an interdisciplinary research centre, since it was set up in 1990. Each Insight explains how economists go about investigating the big questions in each topic, the contribution CEP researchers have made to both academic understanding and policy-making - and the questions that are still to be answered.
    Keywords: gender, inequality, Wages
    Date: 2021–08–10
  3. By: Aparajita Dasgupta (Ashoka University); Ashokankur Datta (Shiv Nadar University)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine how traditional institutions like caste interact with socioeconomic status to mediate the perception of gender roles and attitudes around female labour force participation. We use third party vignettes to directly test the validity of the hypothesis that lower castes have more egalitarian gender norms and lower acceptance of restrictions on female autonomy. We find that the relationship between conservative gender norms and caste are in turn influenced by the class status of households, measured by land or asset ownership. Lastly, we conduct a simple social experiment to test for ‘pluralistic ignorance’ and confirm the presence of systematic overestimation of conservative attitude that varies by caste and class identities.
    Date: 2022–04–29
    Abstract: This paper investigates the potential associations between factors that affected households during the pandemic (such as food insecurity) and the gendered mental health inequalities in the MENA region. To analyze these potential associations, the paper used data from the World Health Organization (five-question module to measure mental health and well-being) and the ERF COVID-MENA Monitor Survey panel dataset. The results indicate a statistically significant difference in the mental health well-being between men and women, with women’s mental health being significantly poorer than that of men. The results reveal that women, on average, worry more over the health consequences of the pandemic and the household’s economic situation. The analysis also indicates that women on average report higher levels of food insecurity in their households, and this variable significantly explains the observed difference in mental health outcomes between genders. In terms of policy recommendations to address the burden of the pandemic affecting women’s mental health as well as food insecurity, it is crucial to collect more sex-disaggregated data that allows for a more accurate assessment of the food insecurity situation in the MENA region from a gender perspective. To address food insecurity, governments and development partners are advised to invest in food assistance programs as well as to expand existing social safety net programs, especially those that improve female-headed households’ access to healthy and nutritious food. In addition, governments are advised to improve access to mental health and psychosocial services for women, as well as to invest in public policies that allow domestic work to be redistributed equally among family members, including assistance and care services for young children.
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–05–04

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