nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒05‒16
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Turning back the clock: Beliefs about gender roles during lockdown By Anne Boring; Gloria Moroni
  2. Can informal care help preserve mental health in nursing homes? Evidence of gender effects. By Quitterie Roquebert
  3. A Model of the Effects of Gender Neutral Tenure Clock Stopping Policies on the Publication Strategies of Junior Faculty By Elisabeth Gugl; Moein Amini; Martin Farnham
  4. Robots and women in manufacturing employment By Zuazu-Bermejo, Izaskun
  5. Financial Access and Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship and Employment: Evidence from Rural India By Sandhya Garg; Samarth Gupta

  1. By: Anne Boring (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Tinbergen Institute - Tinbergen Institute, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Gloria Moroni (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Tinbergen Institute - Tinbergen Institute)
    Abstract: We study the impact of lockdown measures on beliefs about gender roles. We collect data from a representative sample of 1,000 individuals in France during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. To measure beliefs about gender roles, we use questions from the 2018 wave of the European Values Study, and match respondents from the two surveys to compare beliefs before and during lockdown. We find evidence that the lockdown period was associated with a shift towards more traditional beliefs about gender roles. The effects are concentrated among men from the most time-constrained households and from households where bargaining with a partner over sharing responsibility for household production was likely to be an issue. Finally, we find evidence that beliefs about gender equality may be a luxury good: beliefs in equal gender roles increase with household income. Overall, our results suggest that men are more likely to hold egalitarian beliefs about gender roles when these beliefs are not costly for them.
    Keywords: gender norms,household production,COVID-19,time constraints,bargaining
    Date: 2022–04–05
  2. By: Quitterie Roquebert
    Abstract: Informal care, defined as unpaid care provided by relatives, plays a major role in long-term care provision. While much attention has been paid to informal care provided to older persons in the community, little is known on the role of relatives as caregivers in nursing homes. Evidence, however, suggest that relatives are still providing concrete care for people living in nursing homes. This paper analyzes the causal effect of informal care provided by children on mental health for individuals living in nursing homes. We take into account gender differences, considering both the gender of caregivers and the gender of care recipients. We exploit the cross-sectional French survey Care-Institution (2016) which provides a sample of 2,382 individuals representative of the 60+ individuals living in a nursing home and having children. Mental health outcomes are the probability of declaring depression, sleep disorders, poor appetite and feeling of weariness. To deal with the endogeneity of informal care to health variables, we exploit an instrumental variable strategy where the probability of receiving informal care is instrumented by the geographical proximity of children. Results show that in general, informal care provided by children positively affects women's mental health (poor appetite, weariness) while it has no effect on men. It conceals important effects that appear when taking caregiver gender into account. Care provided by daughters has no effect on mental health while care provided by sons is effective in improving mental health of both women (poor appetite) and men (weariness). Public policies should thus take into account the role played by relatives in nursing homes and pay attention to the gender gap in long-term care provision.
    Keywords: informal care, nursing homes, gender.
    JEL: D10 I10 J14 J16 I18
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Elisabeth Gugl; Moein Amini; Martin Farnham
    Abstract: We model the decision of a junior faculty member where to send publications at various points along the tenure track. A single paper arrives exogenously at the start of each of three periods before the tenure decision is made. The researcher has the choice of submitting each paper to either a "Top" journal or a "Regular" journal. The probability of acceptance at a top journal is lower than at a regular journal, but the reward is greater. Researchers need a minimum of 1 top publication or 2 regular publications by the end of the three periods to get tenure. We show that, under reasonable assumptions about gendered childbearing and childrearing responsibilities, introduction of a gender neutral clock stopping (GNCS) policy induces men to submit more papers to top journals, while leaving women’s submission strategies unchanged. This results in more top publications for men under a GNCS policy, while leaving women's publication records unchanged. Our model predictions are largely consistent with the empirical findings of Antecol et al. (2018). Our findings give insights into design of an important “family-friendly” university workplace policy with implications for the “leaky pipeline” in economics, whereby women are especially underrepresented at higher ranks in the discipline.
    Keywords: gender neutral employment policies, tenure standards, gender roles, gender specific costs of child rearing, leaky pipeline
    JEL: J08 J16 M51
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Zuazu-Bermejo, Izaskun
    Abstract: Automation transforms the combination of tasks performed by machines and humans, and reshapes existing labour markets by replacing jobs and creating new ones. The implications of these transformations are likely to differ by gender as women and men concentrate in different tasks and jobs. This article argues that a gender-biased technological change framework will advance our understanding of the differentiated role of robots in labour market outcomes of women and men. The article empirically analyses the impact of industrial robots in gender segregation and employment levels of women and men using an industry-level disaggregated panel dataset of 11 industries in 14 developed and developing countries during 1993-2015. Within fixed-effects and instrumental variables estimates suggest that robotization increases the share of women in manufacturing employment. However, this impact hinges upon female labour force participation. As female labour participation rate increases, robots are associated with a negative effect of robotization in the female share of manufacturing employment. Results also show that the impact of robotization varies at different levels of economic development. The estimates point to a reducing employment effects of robotization, although the effect for women is larger. The results are robust to a variety of various sensitivity checks.
    Keywords: gender-biased technological change,robotization,manufacturing employment,gender industrial segregation
    JEL: C23 F16 J16 F14
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Sandhya Garg; Samarth Gupta (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Can expansion of bank branch network reduce gender-gap in economic activity at the village level? To explore this issue, we construct a novel village-level panel data where we observe the financial access of each unbanked village in India defined as its distance to the nearest village/town with bank branch from 1951-2019; and village-level enterprise data of four economic census rounds of 1990, 1998, 2005 and 2013. To account for endogeneity in placement of bank branches, we use a difference-indifference methodology. We find that the presence of a bank branch within 5km of an un-banked village between 2005 and 2013 (Treatment Group) mitigated the gender gap in entrepreneurship, and employment. The increase in number of female enterprises and in the size of female employment occurs fully driven by non-agricultural sector, whereas a shift is observed in male entrepreneurship from agricultural to nonagricultural sector. We also find evidence that this transition may be a consequence of credit uptake by enterprises from non-institutional sources as proximity to a bankedcenter improves. Our results are robust to unobservable village and year effects, and presence of alternative village-level infrastructure.
    Keywords: Credit, Banking, Branch Expansion, Gender Gap, Entrepreneurship, Enterprise and Development
    JEL: G21 G28 O12
    Date: 2021–09

This nep-gen issue is ©2022 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.