nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒05‒02
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Mandatory Wage Posting, Bargaining and the Gender Wage Gap By Wolfgang Frimmel; Bernhard Schmidpeter; Rene Wiesinger; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
  2. Who Benefits from Piped Water in the House? Empirical Evidence from a Gendered Analysis in India By Sedai, Ashish Kumar
  3. Gendered Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Transitioning from University to Labor Market: Evidence from Turkey By Demirel-Derebasoglu, Merve; Okten, Cagla
  4. Board Diversity and Outward FDI: Evidence from Europe By Valeria Gattai; Piergiovanna Natale; Francesca Rossi

  1. By: Wolfgang Frimmel; Bernhard Schmidpeter (JKU); Rene Wiesinger (JKU); Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
    Abstract: We evaluate whether revealing wage information in job vacancies is able to change the gender wage gap. In 2011, the Austrian Equal Treatment Law mandated every vacancy to include a minimum wage offer. This mandatory wage information makes the employer’s willingness to pay and the value of outside options more salient to job applicants, thus changing bargaining options. Our general results show a small effect of the provision of wage information, reducing the gender gap somewhat. Taking up the bargaining argumentation, we split the sample into vacancies where a higher or a lower bargaining power of firms is to be expected and find a strong and significant reduction of the gender wage gap for jobs which are immediately available and need to be filled urgently. The effect is driven by an increase in female wages. There is no such effect for jobs positions which are not urgently vacant. There is no evidence for changes in vacancy characteristics, meaning the estimated effects come from the provision of wage information rather than different job descriptions and amenities offers. We also show that effects are unlikely to come from changes in the composition of employees and firms as well as from increased returns to labor market experience.
    Keywords: mandatory wage posting, pay transparency law, gender wage gap, job postings, quantile DID
    JEL: J31 J23 J63
    Date: 2022–04
  2. By: Sedai, Ashish Kumar (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The disproportionate burden of water collection, maintenance, and service for women in developing economies calls for a juxtaposition of water infrastructure and gender differences at the household level. We use spatiotemporal data from the largest gender disaggregated human development survey in India (2005–2012) and carry out econometric analyses using individual fixed effects, conditionally exogenous village fixed effects, and instrumental variable regressions to study the effect of indoor piped drinking water (IPDW) on employment and earnings by gender, the self-reported health of women, the prevalence of diarrhea, and children’s absence from school. Among others, the results show that a 0.1% increase in village access to IPDW increases the likelihood of women’s overall employment by 0.33 percentage points and women’s wage/salary employment by 0.39 percentage points, comparatively more than for men. Women’s earnings with IPDW increase by 9.9%, their health improves, and children’s health and education outcomes improve. Our study recommends evaluating the social demand curve for a piped water supply and/or the consideration of a piped water supply as a right as part of a broader strategy to reduce gender differences.
    Keywords: piped water; gender; employment; health; education; India
    JEL: J16 J21 Q25 R11
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: Demirel-Derebasoglu, Merve (Bilkent University); Okten, Cagla (Bilkent University)
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic led to unprecedented disruptions in the labor market. Turkey implemented a worker dismissal ban to mitigate the adverse effects, effective from April 2020 to June 2021. The pandemic and unveiled measures put pressure against recent university graduates' successful transition to the labor market, who are already vulnerable to labor market shocks due to a dramatic increase in their number in the last decade. In this paper, we examine the gendered impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and related employment protection policies on the labor market outcomes of recent university graduates. We find that both males and females are less likely to be employed during the pandemic year, with more pronounced employment losses for females. While gender differences in employment arise from females' high skill employment losses, becoming discouraged workers and staying out of the labor force to invest in self-education led to higher inactivity for females.
    Keywords: COVID-19, employment, gender, employment protection policies, Turkey
    JEL: I14 J21 J16 J08
    Date: 2022–03
  4. By: Valeria Gattai; Piergiovanna Natale; Francesca Rossi
    Abstract: Employing firm-level panel data from 2011 to 2015, we investigate the relationship between board diversity and outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) among firms headquartered in Europe. Previous studies suggest that best-performing firms self-select into OFDI and that board diversity affects firm performance and strategic decisions. Our focus is on board diversity in terms of gender and nationality as determinants of OFDI. After controlling for endogeneity using instrumental variables and control function methods, we find that board diversity positively affects OFDI by increasing firm performance; however, firms with more diverse boards are less likely to open foreign subsidiaries. Our findings also reveal that the negative effect of board diversity on OFDI is stronger in more productive firms.
    Keywords: Board diversity, Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Firm performance, Europe
    JEL: F23 G30 J16
    Date: 2022–03

This nep-gen issue is ©2022 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.