nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒04‒18
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender and Gender Role Attitudes in Wage Negotiations: Evidence from an Online Experiment By Demirović, Melisa; Rogers, Jonathan; Robbins, Blaine G
  2. The Gender Gap in Top Jobs – The Role of Overconfidence By Adamecz-Völgyi, Anna; Shure, Nikki
  3. Gender differences in domestic work during COVID19 in Uruguay By Florencia Amábile; Marisa Bucheli; Cecilia González; Cecilia Lara
  4. Immigration, childcare and gender differences in the Spanish labor market By Amaia Palencia-Esteban
  5. Violent Conflicts and Child Gender Preferences of Parents: Evidence from Nigeria By Ella Sargsyan
  6. Predictors of discordance and concordance in reporting of intimate partner violence: Evidence from a large sample of rural Ethiopian couples By Leight, Jessica; Deyessa, Negussie; Sharma, Vandana
  7. Gender inequalities in the platform economy: The cases of delivery and private passenger transport services in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area By Ariela MICHA; Cecilia POGGI; Francisca PEREYRA

  1. By: Demirović, Melisa; Rogers, Jonathan; Robbins, Blaine G (New York University Abu Dhabi)
    Abstract: Gender differences in wage negotiations is a popular explanation for why the gender gap in pay persists in the United States. In this study, we use data from an artificial wage negotiation experiment (N = 330) to interrogate the gender-negotiation link, and to test whether gender role attitudes (GRAs) moderate this association. Our experiment yields three principal discoveries. First, men are more likely to select into negotiations than women, but this effect varies by GRAs. As GRAs become more traditional, men enter negotiations at a much higher rate than women, but for non-traditional GRAs we observe no gender differences in selection. Second, while men and women are proficient at knowing when to negotiate, men and women are much less proficient when they harbor traditional GRAs. Third, profits are equivalent for men and women, and traditional men are no more effective than women—regardless of their GRAs—at securing higher profits. Our findings suggest that traditional women should “lean-in”, and that traditional men should “lean-out”.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  2. By: Adamecz-Völgyi, Anna (UCL Institute of Education); Shure, Nikki (University College London)
    Abstract: There is a large gender gap in the probability of being in a "top job" in mid-career. Top jobs bring higher earnings, and also have more job security and better career trajectories. Recent literature has raised the possibility that some of this gap may be attributable to women not "leaning in" while men are more overconfident in their abilities. We use longitudinal data from childhood into mid-career and construct a measure of overconfidence using multiple measures of objective cognitive ability and subjective estimated ability. Our measure confirms previous findings that men are more overconfident than women. We then use linear regression and decomposition techniques to account for the gender gap in top jobs including our measure of overconfidence. Our results show that men being more overconfident explains 5-11 percent of the gender gap in top job employment. This contribution is statistically significant although small in magnitude. This indicates that while overconfidence matters for gender inequality in the labor market and has implications for how firms recruit and promote workers, other individual, structural, and societal factors play a larger role.
    Keywords: gender gaps, inequality, overconfidence, labor market
    JEL: I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2022–03
  3. By: Florencia Amábile (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay); Marisa Bucheli (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República Montevideo, Uruguay); Cecilia González (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay); Cecilia Lara (Instituto de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay)
    Abstract: The pandemic generated by Covid-19 caused a shock that would change households’ distribution of domestic work. Based on a survey conducted in 2020 in Uruguay, this paper analyzes changes in the hours devoted to childcare and housework of a sample of highly educated population living with a partner. We find that women and men increased their hours of domestic work, and this is related to decreasing time in the labor market, but there is no relationship with spouses’ time in paid work. The rise (decline) of female (male) time in the labor market leads to equal sharing of couples’ domestic work. Finally, the respondents declared that the increase in their domestic work was more intensive than their partners, with women in particular stating they did more housework than men. The sharing domestic work gap tended to decline, but the final result is sensitive to the gender of the respondent.
    Keywords: Covid-19; gender time use gap; domestic work; childcare; housework; Uruguay
    JEL: J13 J16 J22
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Amaia Palencia-Esteban (University of Vigo)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of immigrants on the women-men gap in several labor market outcomes, focusing on their role as child caretakers and substitutes for women’s domestic work. We use administrative Spanish Social Security records from 1998 to 2008 and follow a spatial correlations approach with instrumental variables, based on the distribution of early migrants across provinces. We exploit the presence of children and its interaction with immigrants share to capture the home-care substitution effect. We find that one percentage point increase in the regional share of immigrants rises the women-men differential in employment probability by 0.6 points in families with children, while the effect equals 0.2 for the childless. The additional effect of 0.4 points on families with children is attributed to the impact of immigrants through the supply of childcare services. This effect also applies to the work intensity (days and hours worked) and labor earnings. Our results are largely driven by individuals below tertiary education.
    Keywords: D10, F22, J22, J31
    Date: 2022–03
  5. By: Ella Sargsyan
    Abstract: Identifying the impacts of conflicts and understanding the origins of gender gaps are both seemingly unrelated but crucial questions in the literature. Focusing on the gap at the intersection of these two branches of literature, this study explores whether and how longrun exposure to violent conflicts contributes to and shapes the child gender preferences of parents. I use temporal and spatial variations in conflicts in Nigeria and combine the Uppsala Conflict Data Program and the Demographic and Health Surveys Program to perform the analysis. The results show that the effect of long-run exposure to violent conflicts on stated preferences (attitudes) for boys is not homogeneous. While conflict events with low or no civilian death increase preferences for sons, violence targeted at civilians works in the opposite direction and decreases preferences for boys. I find no evidence of translating these preferences into behaviour via sex-selective abortions. Instead, evidence shows that parents use the stopping rule to achieve the desired gender composition of children. Further, analysis also indicates that, in the districts affected by conflict, parents have a positive bias towards boys in terms of their postnatal health investment.
    Keywords: gender preferences; son preference; violent conflicts; attitudes and behaviour;
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Leight, Jessica; Deyessa, Negussie; Sharma, Vandana
    Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major worldwide health challenge, and addressing this challenge requires high-quality data. This analysis uses a large-scale survey of 5,033 households in rural Ethiopia in which both men and women were surveyed about past-year IPV in order to quantify the degree of discordance, including both husband only reporting and wife only reporting, for multiple forms of IPV (emotional, physical and sexual). In addition, logistic regression is employed to analyze the effects of demographic characteristics and individual norms and behaviors on the probability of discordant reporting. The results suggest that almost half of households (44%) are characterized by discordant reporting in at least one dimension of IPV. Given the high level of discordance, 61.4% of households report any physical and/or sexual IPV using the household-level measure, compared to a rate of 41.9% from the women’s data only. In addition, men who report more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors (failing to concur with justifications for IPV, reporting higher support for gender equitable norms, and reporting a higher level of female engagement in decision-making and intrahousehold task-sharing) are more likely to be members of wife only reporting households: i.e., they are less likely to report perpetration of IPV. Women who report more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors, by contrast, are more likely to be members of husband only reporting households.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; domestic violence; measurement; rural communities; gender; intimate partner violence (IPV); discordance
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Ariela MICHA; Cecilia POGGI; Francisca PEREYRA
    Abstract: This article inspects how the expansion of the platform economy affects gender inequalities, in some new forms as well in reinforcing pre-existing ones. It focuses on two platform occupations in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: ride-hailing and delivery services. First, it explores the ways in which the platform economy constitutes a welcoming environment for female workers. Second, female versus male performance is assessed in terms of hours worked and earnings. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches it performs a gender gap analysis via linear regression. The article finds that platforms are facilitating an increase in female participation due to three main factors: the impossibility of finding another job, the impersonal recruiting mechanisms and time flexibility offered by platforms. This trend still implies significant gender gaps. The analysis suggests that the differentiated economic performance of male and female riders and drivers is mainly associated to on-the-job characteristics that are reinforced by algorithmic bias in the platform. Women experience more restrictions in terms of when and where they can work, as location and time choices are both constrained by care responsibilities and are also due to the subjective perception of exposure to insecurity and harassment during the work shift.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–03–08

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