nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒04‒11
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Foreign Ownership and Transferring of Gender Norms By Halvarsson, Daniel; Lark, Olga; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
  2. Impact of female peer composition on gender norm perceptions and skills formation in secondary school By Martina Querejeta
  3. Gender effects in Dutch research funding By Albers, Casper J; van der Molen, Sense Jan
  4. A Tale of Parallel Processes of Gender (In-)Equality: How Big is the Glass Ceilings for Mena Women? By Doruk, Ömer Tuğsal; Pastore, Francesco
  5. Mitigating Gender Inequality in the Workplace: Toward Sustainable Development Through Institutional Changes By Kimitaka Nishitani; Akira Kawaguchi
  6. Male and Female Voices in Economics By Hans Henrik Sievertsen; Sarah Smith
  7. Firm survival and gender of firm owner in times of COVID-19 Evidence from 10 European countries By Joachim Wagner

  1. By: Halvarsson, Daniel (Ratio Institute); Lark, Olga (Department of Economics, Lund University); Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik (National Board of Trade, Södertörn University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study foreign ownership as a vehicle for transferring gender norms across international borders. Specifically, we analyze how the wage differential between men and women in Swedish firms is affected by the degree of gender inequality in the home country of foreign investors. The results suggest that gender norms of the home country matter—the gender wage gap in foreign-owned subsidiaries appears to increase with the degree of gender inequality prevailing in the investors' home market. This finding is identified from within job-spell variation in wages and proves robust across a series of specifications.
    Keywords: Foreign ownership; Gender inequality; Gender wage gap; Internationalization; Gender norms
    JEL: F66 J16 J31
    Date: 2022–03–25
  2. By: Martina Querejeta
    Abstract: This paper examines peer effects on students' gender norm perceptions and skills formation. I use a Uruguayan nationally representative survey of 9th grade students and exploit the quasi-random variation in the proportion of female peers across classes within schools for causal identification. Results show that a higher exposure to female peers in the class leads to more progressive gender norms. Furthermore, these effects in gender perceptions are driven mostly by male students.
    Keywords: Peer effect, Gender norms, Gender inequality, Developing countries
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Albers, Casper J (University of Groningen); van der Molen, Sense Jan
    Abstract: In 2015, the Dutch research council, NWO, took measures to combat gender bias disadvantaging female applicants in a popular three-tiered funding scheme called the Talent Programme. Using all available data for the last 10 years of applications, we study whether these measures had an effect. We find strong statistical evidence of a shift in gender effects in favour of female applicants in the first tier, called Veni. Gender differences are not found in the two other tiers, the Vidi and Vici schemes.
    Date: 2022–03–19
  4. By: Doruk, Ömer Tuğsal; Pastore, Francesco
    Abstract: In all the MENA countries considered in this study, namely Jordan Egypt and Tunisia, there has been a significant decrease in the female labor force participation rate over the last two decades. Moreover, existing analysis and the anecdotal evidence suggest that it may be problematic for women to reach a white collar high skill job, also in the more protected public sector, though there is very little empirical evidence on this. By using repeated cro ss sections of individuals covering periods of up to 20 years (for Egypt), we examine the evolution of the glass ceiling problem for women resorting to the matching approach, which, to our knowledge, has never been used in this field. Instead of looking at the gender gap along the wage distribution, we assess the probability to reach the top professions of manager, professional and technician or associate professional. We find a sizeable glass ceiling effect in all the countries considered. It is a persistent phenomenon across all the industrial sectors and the years considered. The present study sheds new light on the glass ceiling effect for woman in the MENA countries, which is relevant also for other countries
    Keywords: Glass ceilings,Woman employment,labor force,Egypt,Jordan,Tunisia
    JEL: J16 J71 K38 O53 P52
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Kimitaka Nishitani (Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, JAPAN); Akira Kawaguchi (Faculty of Policy Studies, Doshisha University, JAPAN)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify why gender inequality in the workplace has remained intractable, and how it may be mitigated in Japanese firms. To this end, we analyze gender inequality in the workplace and mitigation in terms of institutional characteristics (i.e., the Japanese employment system and its institutional complementarity with corporate governance, as well as Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)), using data on Japanese firms listed on the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 2019. The main findings of this study are as follows. First, gender inequality in the workplace is more severe where institutional complementarity between Japanese-style corporate governance and the employment system is strong. Second, a change to the Anglo-American style of corporate governance mitigates this inequality by encouraging firm efforts to reduce it, even where Japanese-style corporate governance remains strong. Third, the SDGs encourage firms to mitigate gender inequality in the workplace further. Accordingly, it is proved that a firm’s decisions on managing gender workplace inequality strongly align with those of the institutional characteristics of the firm. These institutional factors influence gender (in)equality in the workplace by optimizing the balance between the interdependent social and economic values of firms, so that their overall value is maximized.
    Keywords: Gender inequality in the workplace; Institution and institutional changes; Japanese employment system; Corporate governance; Sustainable development goals
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Hans Henrik Sievertsen; Sarah Smith
    Abstract: Women’s voices are likely to be even more absent from economic debates than headline figures on female under-representation suggest. Focusing on a panel of leading economists we find that men are more willing than women to express an opinion and are more certain and more confident in their opinions, including in areas where both are experts. Women make up 21 per cent of the panel but 19 per cent of the opinions expressed and 14 per cent of strong opinions. We discuss implications for the economics profession and for promoting a genuine diversity of views.
    Date: 2022–03–07
  7. By: Joachim Wagner (Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre)
    Abstract: This paper uses firm level data from the World Bank Enterprise surveys conducted in 2019 and from the COVID-19 follow-up surveys conducted in 2020 in ten European countries to investigate the link between the gender of the firm’s owner and firm survival until 2020.The estimated effect of female ownership is positive ceteris paribus after controlling for various firm characteristics that are known to be related to survival. Furthermore, the size of this estimated effect can be considered to be large on average. Having a female owner helped firms to survive.
    Keywords: Gender, female owned firms, firm survival, COVID-19, World Bank Enterprise Surveys
    JEL: D22 L20 L25 L29
    Date: 2022–03

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