nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒04‒04
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Closing the Gender Gap in Secondary School Enrolment in sub-Saharan Africa: Does women’s political empowerment matter? By Issa Dianda; Idrissa Ouedraogo; Jean de Dieu Goumbri
  2. Sibling Gender, Inheritance Customs and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Matrilineal and Patrilineal Societies By Collins, Matthew
  3. Taxing the Gender Gap: Labor Market Effects of a Payroll Tax Cut for Women in Italy By Enrico Rubolino
  4. Gendered impacts of COVID-19: Insights from 7 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia By Alvi, Muzna Fatima; Gupta, Shweta; Barooah, Prapti; Ringler, Claudia; Bryan, Elizabeth; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
  5. Gender and collusion By Haucap, Justus; Heldman, Christina; Rau, Holger A.
  6. The Scarring Effect of “Women’s Work”: The Determinants of Women’s Attrition from Male-dominated Occupations By Torre, Margarita

  1. By: Issa Dianda (CEDRES, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso); Idrissa Ouedraogo (CEDRES, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso); Jean de Dieu Goumbri (CEDRES, Koudougou, Burkina Faso)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of female political empowerment on gender equality in secondary school enrolment in a sample of 20 sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries over the period 2000-2017. Results from Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Instrumental variable (IV)-Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) reveal that the gender gap in secondary education decreases with female political empowerment. Therefore, increasing the representation of women in politics is an important lever of economic policy to improve the secondary education of women, allowing them to be more productive and more fulfilled.
    Keywords: Women’s political empowerment, Gender equality; Secondary education enrolment; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Collins, Matthew (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: Using data from 27 sub-Saharan African countries, I identify the causal effect of sibling gender on education and how it varies according to inheritance customs. Boys who inherit their father's property experience no effect of sibling gender, while boys who do not inherit experience a significant negative effect of having a brother. Having a brother has a small negative effect on the education of girls, regardless of inheritance customs. The effect of sibling gender converges after the introduction of laws guaranteeing that children inherit from their parents, suggesting that parents substitute between transferring inheritance and investing in their children’s education.
    Keywords: sibling gender; patriliny; matriliny; educational attainment
    JEL: D13 I20 J16
    Date: 2022–03–07
  3. By: Enrico Rubolino
    Abstract: This paper studies the labor market effects of a large employer-borne payroll tax cut for unemployed women, introduced in Italy since 2013. I combine social secu- rity data with several empirical approaches, leveraging the time-limited applica- tion of the tax scheme and discontinuities in eligibility criteria across municipali- ties, cohorts, and occupations. I find that the payroll tax cut generates long-lasting growth in female employment, reduces the time spent on welfare, and spurs busi- ness growth, without crowding out male employment. By contrast, the tax cut does not raise net wages, suggesting that tax incidence is mostly on firms. A cost- benefit analysis implies that the net cost of the policy is nearly half of the budgetary cost. These findings suggest that employer-borne payroll tax cuts are an efficient strategy to raise demand for female labor and tackle the gender employment gap, but they are not sufficient for reducing the gender pay gap.
    Keywords: gender gap, female employment, payroll tax, tax incidence
    JEL: H22 J21 J31
    Date: 2022–01
  4. By: Alvi, Muzna Fatima; Gupta, Shweta; Barooah, Prapti; Ringler, Claudia; Bryan, Elizabeth; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that periods of crisis affect men and women differently, mediated by their access to resources and information, as well as social and institutional structures that may systematically disadvantage women from being able to access relief, institutional support, and rehabilitation. To capture the gendered impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns, we conducted phone surveys in seven countries spread across Asia and Africa. The study was designed as a longitudinal panel study with five rounds of data collection in Ghana, Nepal, Nigeria, and Senegal, and three rounds of data collection in Kenya, Niger, and Uganda. Both men and women were administered the same survey, with some modifications made across countries to adapt to local contexts. This report gives an overview of our findings covering several topics including income loss, coping strategies, labor and time use, food and water insecurity and child education outcomes. We find widespread reports of income loss, which declined over time, but increased again as countries experienced a resurgence in COVID-19 cases and fatality. We find that households first depleted savings when faced with income loss and over time, use of savings reduced while other measures began to be adopted. Women reported greater food and water insecurity compared to men, including worrying about insufficient food and eating less than usual. This is particularly worrying since a large proportion of women also did not have adequately diverse diets. Moderate to severe water insecurity was reported in many of the countries, and as with food insecurity, women were more likely to report issues with accessing water for drinking and other household activities. In some countries, additional modules were added to capture country specific issues of policy relevance, such agriculture extension, mental health, and child marriage. The results make it clear that proactive investments will be needed, including social safety nets, favorable credit policies, nutrition and water investments, to ensure that the crisis does not further widen the gender gap in resources and achievements in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries.
    Keywords: GHANA; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; KENYA; NIGER; WEST AFRICA; UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; gender; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; surveys; income; labour; time use; food security; water security; children; education
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Haucap, Justus; Heldman, Christina; Rau, Holger A.
    Abstract: Many cartels are formed by individual managers of different firms, but not by firms as collectives. However, most of the literature in industrial economics neglects individuals' incentives to form cartels. Although oligopoly experiments reveal important insights on individuals acting as firms, they largely ignore individual heterogeneity, such as gender differences. We experimentally analyze gender differences in prisoner's dilemmas, where collusive behavior harms a passive third party. In a control treatment, no externality exists. To study the influence of social distance, we compare subjects' collusive behavior in a within-subjects setting. In the first game, subjects have no information on other players, whereas they are informed about personal characteristics in the second game. Results show that guilt-averse women are significantly less inclined to collude than men when collusion harms a third party. No gender difference can be found in the absence of a negative externality. Interestingly, we find that women are not sensitive to the decision context, i.e., even when social distance is small they hardly behave collusively when collusion harms a third party.
    Keywords: Collusion,Cartels,Competition Policy,Antitrust,Gender Differences
    JEL: C92 D01 D43 J16 K21 L13 L41
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Torre, Margarita
    Abstract: Women's entry into formerly male-dominated occupations has increased in recent decades, yet a significant outflow remains. This study examines the determinants of women's exits from male-dominated occupations, focusing on the effect of previous occupational trajectories. In particular, it hypothesizes that occupational trajectories in female-dominated occupations are often imbued with meanings and beliefs about the (in)appropriateness of the worker, which adversely affect women's integration and chances when they enter the male sector. Using the NLSY79 data set, the study analyzes the job histories of women employed in the United States between 1979 and 2006. The results reveal a disproportionate risk of exit among newcomers from female-dominated occupations. Also, women who reenter the male field are more likely to leave it again. Altogether, the findings challenge explanations based on deficiencies in the information available to women at the moment of hiring. The evidence points to the existence of a “scar effect” of previous work in the female field, which hinders women's opportunities in the male sector and ends up increasing the likelihood of exit.
    Date: 2022–02–11

This nep-gen issue is ©2022 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.