nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒03‒28
two papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender differences in tolerance for women's opinions and the role of social norms By Ryo Takahashi
  2. Commuting to work and gender-conforming social norms: evidence from same-sex couples By Sonia Oreffice; Dario Sansone

  1. By: Ryo Takahashi (Graduate School of Economics, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan.)
    Abstract: This study empirically examines gender differences in tolerance for opinions and identifies how social norms for gender equality mitigate gender differences in tolerance for women’s opinions by conducting online randomized experiments in Japan. In this experiment, we asked the participants to evaluate the agreement score for ten anonymous statements and implemented two types of random interventions: disclosing the gender of the statement poster and providing information on social norms for gender equality. The results of both cross-sectional and panel data analyses showed that people significantly reduced the agreement score for women’s opinions compared to men’s and non-gender-disclosure opinions. Meanwhile, the negative impact of female gender disclosure was neutralized when participants were provided with information on gender norms. These results suggest that people are likely to be less tolerant of women’s opinions in general, while such gender differences are mitigated through social norms.
    Keywords: Social norms, gender bias, online randomized experiment, Japan
    JEL: C91 J16 D91 C99
    Date: 2022–03
  2. By: Sonia Oreffice; Dario Sansone
    Abstract: We analyze work commute time by sexual orientation of partnered or married individuals, using the American Community Survey 2008-2019. Women in same-sex couples have a longer commute to work than working women in different-sex couples, whereas the commute to work of men in same-sex couples is shorter than the one of working men in different-sex couples, also after controlling for demographic characteristics, partner characteristics, location, fertility, and marital status. These differences are particularly stark among married couples with children: on average, about 3 minutes more one-way to work for married mothers in same-sex couples, and almost 2 minutes less for married fathers in same-sex couples, than their corresponding working parents in different-sex couples. These gaps among men and women amount to 50 percent, and 100 percent, respectively, of the gender commuting gap estimated in the literature. Within-couple gaps in commuting time are also significantly smaller in same-sex couples. We interpret these differences as evidence that it is gender-conforming social norms boosted by parenthood that lead women in different-sex couples to specialize into jobs with a shorter commute while their male partners or spouses hold jobs with a longer commute.
    Date: 2022–02

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