nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒03‒07
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The gender gap in lifetime earnings: The role of parenthood By Glaubitz, Rick; Harnack-Eber, Astrid; Wetter, Miriam
  2. Can Progressive Taxation Address Gender Inequality in Income? Cross-National Evidence of Gender Differences in Income Tax Payment Patterns and Post-Tax Income. By Morgan Richards-Melamdir
  3. The COVID-19 Pandemic in Latin American and Caribbean Countries: The Labor Supply Impact by Gender By Viollaz, Mariana; Salazar-Saenz, Mauricio; Flabbi, Luca; Bustelo, Monserrat; Bosch, Mariano
  4. "Controlling for what?" Folk economics, legal consciousness and the gender wage gap in the United States By Hirschman, Daniel
  5. Parental Religiosity and Missing School-Girls in Turkey By Melike Kökkizil
  6. Institutional discrimination against female managers as a barrier to firm internationalization and international trade By Hoch, Felix; Rudsinske, Jonas
  7. Why do women accumulate less wealth than men? By Céline Bessière; Sibylle Gollac

  1. By: Glaubitz, Rick; Harnack-Eber, Astrid; Wetter, Miriam
    Abstract: To obtain a more complete understanding of the persisting gender earnings gap in Germany, this paper investigates both the cross-sectional and biographical dimension of gender inequalities. Using an Oaxaca Blinder decomposition, we show that the gender gap in annual earnings is largely driven by women's lower work experience and intensive margin of labor supply. Based on a dynamic microsimulation model, we then estimate how gender differences accumulate over work lives to account for the biographical dimension of the gender gap. We observe an average gender lifetime earnings gap of 51.5 percent for birth cohorts 1964-1972. We show that this unadjusted gender lifetime earnings gap increases strongly with the number of children, ranging from 17.8 percent for childless women to 68.0 percent for women with three or more children. However, using a counterfactual analysis we find that the adjusted gender lifetime earnings gap of 10 percent differs only slightly by women's family background.
    Keywords: Lifetime Earnings,Gender Inequality,Parenthood,Dynamic Microsimulation
    JEL: D31 J13 J16 J31
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Morgan Richards-Melamdir
    Abstract: Gender difference in taxation is generally understudied, especially in sociology literature, which often overlooks taxation as a social phenomenon. While a small literature, studies on gender and taxation from a wider range of disciplines have offered and tested some core mechanisms producing gender difference in tax payment and post-tax income. One such mechanism is degree of tax progressivity. Most research on progressivity and gender difference in taxation analyzes one or two countries. Less research has used cross-national methods and larger samples of countries. This paper uses the most recent dataset for 27 countries (Waves IX, X, XI, from 2013 to 2018) from the Luxembourg Income Study Database (LIS) and a sample of single working men and women between the ages of 25 and 64 to address unanswered questions about the relationship between tax progressivity and gender differences in income tax payment and post-tax income. As expected, progressive taxation taxes men at a higher rate when gender income gaps favor men, while, in countries with less progressive taxation, men paid rates more similar to women, regardless of gender gap size. Income tax progressivity was also associated with greater gender equality in income post-tax. These results support tax progressivity as a tool for producing more gender-equal income distributions post-tax. Alongside previous research, these findings indicate that policymakers seeking greater gender equity should prioritize both progressive taxation and individual tax filing. Such arrangements allow progressive taxation to support gender equality in income without discouraging labor force participation for coupled women.
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Viollaz, Mariana (CEDLAS-UNLP); Salazar-Saenz, Mauricio (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio)); Flabbi, Luca (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Bustelo, Monserrat (Inter-American Development Bank); Bosch, Mariano (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: We study the labor supply impact of the COVID-19 pandemic by gender in four Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries: Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, and Mexico. To identify the impact, we compare labor market stocks and labor market flows over four quarters for a set of balanced panel samples of comparable workers before and after the pandemic. We find that the pandemic has negatively affected the labor market status of both men and women, but that the effect is significantly stronger for women, magnifying the already large gender gaps that characterize LAC countries. The main channel through which this stronger impact is taking place is the increase in child care work affecting women with school-age children.
    Keywords: labor supply, labor market transitions, COVID-19, gender differentials, Latin American and Caribbean countries
    JEL: J6 J16 J46 O10 O17
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: Hirschman, Daniel (Brown University)
    Abstract: Studies of the political power of economic knowledge have tended to foreground the role of causal claims in the form of grand theories or more narrow findings produced by experimental methods. In contrast, scholars have paid relatively little attention to the role of economic experts' descriptions. This article highlights one category of influential, quantitative descriptive claim: stylized facts. Stylized facts are simple empirical regularities in need of explanation. Focusing on the example of the gender wage gap in the United States, this article showcases how stylized facts travel into political debates, and how the choices made in characterizing an aspect of economic life (such as controlling for full-time work, but little else) interact with social movement activism, and folk understandings of economic life shaped by legal consciousness. The gender wage gap was first calculated in the 1950s, but did not take on special importance until the 1960s-1970s when feminists rallied around the statistic as a useful aggregate measure of women's economic disempowerment. Academics soon followed, and sociologists and economists began to publish studies documenting trends in the gap and trying to account for its sources. The comparable worth movement of the 1980s explicitly argued that the wage gap resulted from occupational segregation and the devaluation of women's work. As that movement faltered in the late 1980s, the gender wage gap became increasingly understood through the lens of women's choices and tradeoffs between work and family, and occupational segregation dropped out of the narrative, even as academics documented the persistent importance of segregation in explaining the remaining gap. Throughout this period, the gap was frequently misunderstood or misrepresented as reflecting the narrow sort of same-job, different-pay discrimination made illegal by the 1963 Equal Pay Act, adding confusion to the public debate over women's economic position. These dynamics showcase how technical choices made in the identification of stylized facts, such as statistical controls, are simultaneously deeply political choices.
    Date: 2021–11–12
  5. By: Melike Kökkizil (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
    Abstract: Does parents' religiosity affect their female offspring's education and other life-long outcomes? I address this question by focusing on Turkey and exploiting Ramadan as a quasi-natural experiment for increased active religiosity. I find that the occurrence of Ramadan at the enrollment time in primary schools reduces girls' chance to access primary education. This result arises from the salience of traditional gender norms that religiosity engenders. I further show that parental religiosity at the primary school enrollment has persistent effects on females' labor market outcomes. They become less likely to participate in the labor market, less likely to be income-earners, and less likely to work in professional jobs. Instead, increased religiosity at the critical age of schooling increases fertility and the probability of women being out of the labor force due to household responsibilities. These results are robust to di erent specifications and an alternative empirical strategy that uses average daylight hours during Ramadan in the year of primary school enrollment as a shock to religiosity.
    Keywords: Islam, Gender Equality, Ramadan, Social Norms, Illegal Behavior.
    JEL: Z12 J16 I24 I25 J12 J13 D91 J12 J13 K38 K42
    Date: 2022–02
  6. By: Hoch, Felix; Rudsinske, Jonas
    Abstract: We show that firm internationalization is affected by the interaction between the board of directors' female share and gender-related institutions in foreign countries. The combination of a high share of female directors and gender-discriminating institutions in a destination reduces sales in that foreign country relative to less discriminatory destinations. We deal with potential endogeneity due to omitted variable bias by including firm-year and origin-destination-year fixed effects, while an event study exploiting the appointments of new female board members addresses endogeneity due to reverse causality. This firm-level relationship transfers to the country-level when using countries' aggregate share of female directors and bilateral exports in a structural gravity framework including origin-year, destination-year and origin-destination fixed effects. Our findings suggest that institutionalized discrimination against female managers is a barrier to firm internationalization on the micro level and international trade on the macro level. This might give rise to disadvantages for female managers even in non-discriminatory countries.
    JEL: F14 F23 J16 M16
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Céline Bessière (IRISSO - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Sciences Sociales - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sibylle Gollac (CRESPPA - Centre de recherches sociologiques et politiques de Paris - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In contemporary capitalism, inequality of wealth is increasing. Some upper-class families appropriate economic capital and pass it on to their children, while others are permanently deprived of it. At the same time, while women have largely entered the labor market and the gender pay gap is on the political agenda in all Western countries, the gender wealth gap is not closing, quite the opposite. In this chapter we explore family wealth arrangements in France. Estate planning and marital breakdowns are two moments when families and legal professionals strive to preserve real estate and businesses, or to minimize taxes. For this purpose, they produce inventories, estimations and distributions of assets which end up disadvantaging women, even though shares may appear to be formally equal. Reversed accounting is a common logic of practice, in which the result comes first and computation only after, as a means to legitimize the sharing that has been (forcefully) agreed on. Thus, it is not only the wealth of the upper class that is underestimated, but more particularly men's wealth. Those mechanisms contribute to impoverish women. We conclude that class society reproduces itself thanks to the male appropriation of capital.
    Date: 2021

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