nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒02‒28
eleven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. What's the Risk from Competing? Competition Aversion and the Gender Wage Gap By Choe, Chung; Jungy, SeEun; Oaxaca, Ronald L.
  2. The Gender Recontest Gap in Elections By Baskaran, Thushyanthan; Hessami, Zohal
  3. COVID-19 and the Exacerbation of Gender Inequality: How the Pandemic Disproportionately Affected Women around the World By Dikler, Jennifer
  4. Culture, Gender, and Financial Literacy By Davoli, Maddalena; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria
  5. Gender differences in time allocation contribute to differences in developmental outcomes in children and adolescents By Nguyen, Ha Trong; Brinkman, Sally; Le, Huong Thu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Mitrou, Francis
  6. Gender Differences in Reference Letters: Evidence from the Economics Job Market By Eberhardt, Markus; Facchini, Giovanni; Rueda, Valeria
  7. Time and Money spent on Children: Effect of the (Grand)Parents’ Education and Substitution within Time Allocations By Guillaume Perilleux
  8. Gendered Taxes: The Interaction of Tax Policy with Gender Equality By Mr. Alexander D Klemm; Maria Delgado Coelho; Ms. Carolina Osorio Buitron; Aieshwarya Davis
  9. Women in Paid Employment: A Role for Public Policies and Social Norms in Guatemala By Almeida, Rita K.; Viollaz, Mariana
  10. Slowing Women's Labor Force Participation: The Role of Income Inequality By Stefania Albanesi; María José Prados
  11. Women in Economics: Europe and the World By Auriol, Emmanuelle; Friebel, Guido; Weinberger, Alisa; Wilhelm, Sascha

  1. By: Choe, Chung (Konkuk University); Jungy, SeEun (Inha University); Oaxaca, Ronald L. (University of Arizona)
    Abstract: Laboratory experiments involving a real effort task are conducted to examine the importance of gender differences in competition aversion for generating gender wage gaps. Cross-subject design treatment and control experiments suggest that gender differences in risk aversion play no significant role in competitive (tournament) vs. piece-rate job choices and consequent gender wage gaps. Subjects in the treatment experiments are sorted into relatively more and relatively less risk averse groupings. Relatively less risk averse subjects are assigned to a risky job track involving a known constant probability of unemployment in each period. The gender wage gap contribution of gender differences in competition aversion compared with the contribution of gender differences in performance is especially large for relatively less risk averse subjects.
    Keywords: gender wage gaps, wage decompositions, competition preferences, risk aversion, lab experiments
    JEL: J16 J31 C91 D91
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Baskaran, Thushyanthan (University of Siegen); Hessami, Zohal (Ruhr University Bochum)
    Abstract: This paper documents an important but mostly overlooked reason for female underrepresentation in politics: gender gaps in the recontest likelihood of candidates. Using hand-collected data on 116,185 candidates in four consecutive local council elections (2001-2016) in a German state, we provide evidence for a gender recontest gap among both incumbent and non-incumbent candidates. Female candidates are 4 to 5 percentage points less likely than male candidates to run again conditional on previous candidacy. Studying mechanisms, we find that women are likely held back by incompatibilities between family obligations and political duties as well as a culture of male dominance in local politics.
    Keywords: gender, political selection, persistence, local councils, candidacy
    JEL: D72 D78 J16
    Date: 2021–12
    Abstract: The gender wage gap, or the idea that women have historically and consistently earned less than men, has been widely studied and accepted over the past few decades. This gender wage gap exists globally and serves as a powerful indicator of the gender inequality experienced by women. As of 2019, according to data amassed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), South Korea’s gender wage gap among full-time employees is the largest among the countries that make up the OECD, coming in at 32.5%. Japan was second at 32.5%, followed by Mexico, the United States, and Canada at 18.8%, 18.5%, and 17.6%, respectively. Notably, in countries with higher levels of racial diversity, the gender wage gap is usually significantly exacerbated for women of color. Despite narrowing in recent years, the gender wage gap is extremely stubborn, and very much existent, as is the general global gender inequality that it reflects. In the past 18 months, the world's population and the global economy have been significantly upended by the COVID-19 pandemic. The virus has affected virtually every country in the world, especially nations with fewer resources to help combat its spread. Studies are also beginning to confirm that COVID-19 has had a disproportionate economic effect on women in many countries, amplifying the gender inequality that persisted in the global economy even prior to the pandemic. For example, as outlined in a study published by McKinsey in July 2020, “Women make up 39 percent of global employment but account for 54 percent of overall [COVID-19- related] job losses” (Madgavkar et al. 2020). However, the widening of the gender gap during the pandemic has been far from universal, with some countries seeing the opposite results. This brief seeks to provide an initial exploration, specifically highlighting how variably the pandemic has affected the United States, South Korea, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, the Honduras, Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany. When it comes to global gender equality, where progress is so essential and yet so slow, it is extremely important to explore the economic setbacks created by the pandemic. If not addressed properly, these setbacks might not only slow the fight toward gender equality, but could also slow down the global economy.
    Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; gender inequality; gender wage gap; OECD
    Date: 2021–12–20
  4. By: Davoli, Maddalena (Goethe University Frankfurt); Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (Queens College, CUNY)
    Abstract: Using a nationally representative US sample of 9,623 adults from 27 countries of ancestries, we find that the higher the degree of gender convergence in financial knowledge in the country of ancestry, the higher the financial knowledge of women in the US relative to their male counterparts. After ruling out gender differences in cognitive and non-cognitive skills as potential mechanisms, we find that higher patience and lower altruism in the country of ancestry are associated with greater financial knowledge for men but not for women in the US. Once we remove any country-of-ancestry gender variation from these preferences, gender convergence in financial knowledge continues to be associated with women's (relative and absolute) greater financial literacy in the US, underscoring that gender differences in financial literacy are socially constructed. This relative and absolute female improvement is particularly robust for knowledge related to inflation and risk-diversification.
    Keywords: financial literacy, gender, epidemiological approach, and preferences
    JEL: D1 J16 G53 Z10
    Date: 2022–01
  5. By: Nguyen, Ha Trong; Brinkman, Sally; Le, Huong Thu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Mitrou, Francis
    Abstract: Using over 50 thousand time-use diaries from two cohorts of children, we document significant gender differences in time allocation in the first 16 years in life. Relative to males, females spend more time on personal care, chores and educational activities and less time on physical and media related activities. These gender gaps in time allocation appear at very young ages and widen overtime. We provide novel evidence that gender differentials in time investment are quantitatively important in explaining a female advantage in most cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Moreover, gender disparity in educational time outside of school is the most important factor contributing to gender test score gaps and its contribution is more pronounced for higher performing students. By contrast, gender differences in media time are the main factor explaining gender gaps in non-cognitive skills. As children age, gender differences in time allocation play an increasing role in explaining gender gaps in both cognitive and non-cognitive skills.
    Keywords: Time Allocation,Time Use Diary,Gender Gap,Human Capital,Child Development
    JEL: I24 J13 J16 J22 J24
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Eberhardt, Markus (University of Oxford); Facchini, Giovanni (University of Nottingham); Rueda, Valeria (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: Academia, and economics in particular, faces increased scrutiny because of gender imbalance. This paper studies the job market for entry-level faculty positions. We employ machine learning methods to analyze gendered patterns in the text of 9,000 reference letters written in support of 2,800 candidates. Using both supervised and unsupervised techniques, we document widespread differences in the attributes emphasized. Women are systematically more likely to be described using "grindstone" terms and at times less likely to be praised for their ability. Given the time and effort letter writers devote to supporting their students, this gender stereotyping is likely due to unconscious biases.
    Keywords: gender, natural language processing, stereotyping, diversity
    JEL: J16 A11
    Date: 2022–01
  7. By: Guillaume Perilleux
    Abstract: This paper looks at the link between education of both partners and the time and money they spend on their children. Taking advantage of detailed microdata, it goes one step further than most previous studies as we control for the time constraint faced by the individuals, as well as interdependencies in the time spent in various activities by partners. This is done by performing Seemingly Unrelated Regressions. We see that, while the division of time between men and women is still gendered, it gets more egalitarian when the individuals have a high level of education. Concerning the investments in children, we find that children with parents with a low level of education suffer from less investments from their parents both in terms of time and money. Overall, our results seem to back up the gender ideology theory with education driving the transition from conservative to more egalitarian gender ideology and to be transmitted across generations with grandparents serving as gendered role models for the parents.
    Keywords: Childcare, Education, Gender Norms, Transmission, Time use
    Date: 2022–02
  8. By: Mr. Alexander D Klemm; Maria Delgado Coelho; Ms. Carolina Osorio Buitron; Aieshwarya Davis
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the relation between tax policy and gender equality, covering labor, capital and wealth, as well as consumption taxes. It considers implicit and explicit gender biases and corrective taxation. On labor taxes, we discuss the well-established findings on female labor supply and present new empirical work on the impact of household taxation. We also analyze the impact of progressivity on pay gaps and labor supply. On capital and wealth taxation, we discuss the implications of lower effective capital income taxation on the personal income tax burden gap across genders. We show that countries with relatively low female shares of capital income and wealth also tend to tax property and inheritances particularly lightly. On consumption taxes, we cover taxes on female hygiene products and excise taxes, which we assess in relation to externalities and differences in consumption patterns across genders.
    Keywords: Tax, Gender, Labor Supply, Biased Taxes.
    Date: 2022–02–04
  9. By: Almeida, Rita K. (World Bank); Viollaz, Mariana (CEDLAS-UNLP)
    Abstract: With only 32% of active age women in the labor market, Guatemala is an upper middle-income country with one of the lowest rates of female labor force participation in the Latin America and the Caribbean region, and in the world. The rate of female labor participation is especially low in the poor regions of the North and the Northwest. We explore information from different micro data sets, including the most recent Population Census (2002 and 2018) to assess the drivers of the recent progress. Between 2002 and 2018, FLFP increased 5.7 percentage points, from an average of 26% to 32% nationwide. This increase was partly explained by the drastic increases in the school attainment of women, the reduction in fertility and the country’s structural transformation towards services. However, a large component remains unexplained. Exploring 2018 data, we show that social norms, attitudes towards women in the society and public policies are important determinants of these changes. The analysis suggests that, taken together, these factors can all become an important source of increased female labor force participation moving forward.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, gender, Guatemala
    JEL: J16 J21 J22 O12
    Date: 2022–01
  10. By: Stefania Albanesi; María José Prados
    Abstract: The entry of married women into the labor force and the rise in women's relative wages are amongst the most notable economic developments of the twentieth century. The growth in these indicators was particularly pronounced in the 1970s and 1980s, but it stalled since the early 1990s, especially for college graduates. In this paper, we argue that the discontinued growth in female labor supply and wages since the 1990s is a consequence of growing inequality. Our hypothesis is that the growth in top incomes for men generated a negative income effect on the labor supply of their spouses, which reduced their participation and wages. We show that the slowdown in participation and wage growth was concentrated among women married to highly educated and high income husbands, whose earnings grew dramatically over this period. We then develop a model of household labor supply with returns to experience that qualitatively reproduces this effect. A calibrated version of the model can account for a large fraction of the decline relative to trend in married women's participation in 1995-2005 particularly for college women. The model can also account for the rise in the gender wage gap for college graduates relative to trend in the same period.
    JEL: E24 J16 J21 J22 J3
    Date: 2022–01
  11. By: Auriol, Emmanuelle; Friebel, Guido; Weinberger, Alisa; Wilhelm, Sascha
    Abstract: Based on a data set that we collected from the top research institutions in economics around the globe (including universities, business schools and other or- ganizations such as central banks), we document the underrepresentation of women in economics. For the 238 universities and business schools in the sample, women hold 25% of senior level positions (full professor, associate professor) and 37% of junior level positions. In the 82 U.S. universities and business schools, the figures are 20% on the senior level and 32% on the entry level, while in the 122 European institutions, the numbers are 27% and 38%, respectively, with some heterogeneity across countries. The numbers also show that the highest-ranking institutions (in terms of research output) have fewer women in senior positions. Moreover, in the U.S., this effect is even present on the junior level. The “leaky pipeline” may hence begin earlier than oftentimes assumed, and is even more of an issue in the highly integrated market of the U.S. In Europe, an institution ranked 100 places higher has three percentage points fewer women in senior positions, but in the U.S. it is almost five percentage points.
    Keywords: gender equality ; academic hierarchies ; leaky pipeline
    JEL: A11 J16
    Date: 2022–01–19

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