nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒02‒14
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender differences in investments and risk preferences By Holden, Stein T.; Tilahun, Mesfin
  2. Gender, Income, and Numeracy Test Scores By Molly Paterson; Jaai Parasnis; Michelle Rendall
  3. Women's Work in India: Evidence from changes in time use between 1998 and 2019 By Nicholas Li

  1. By: Holden, Stein T. (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Tilahun, Mesfin (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: We analyze individual investment behavior among 822 young men and women that are members of 111 formal business groups in northern Ethiopia. We collected baseline data and investment data one year later combined with incentivized field experiments to obtain dis-aggregated risk preference data. We find that business women on average invest significantly less at individual level than business men but Cohen’s d values for the gender difference are moderate in size. Women are found to have higher Constant Relative Risk Aversion coefficients, to be more loss averse, but also to be more optimistic in their expectations than men. Women were also poorer in non-land assets, came from more land-poor parents and had lower incomes. The gender differences in risk attitudes and baseline endowments could explain some of but not all of the gender differences in investments.
    Keywords: Gender difference; Individual investment; Risk preferences; Prospect theory; Cohen’s d; Business groups; Northern Ethiopia
    JEL: C93 D90
    Date: 2022–01–25
  2. By: Molly Paterson (Monash University); Jaai Parasnis (Department of Economics, Monash University); Michelle Rendall (Department of Economics, Monash University)
    Abstract: The performance of students in numeracy tests reveals gaps based on students’ gender and household income. In this paper, using longitudinal data on Australian children, we show the interrelationship between (i) socioeconomic gaps based on early-life household income, and (ii) the gender gap in numeracy. We find that between Grades 3 to 9, boys have a distinct advantage in numeracy scores over girls, which widens over time. We also find that, by Grade 9, poorer female students are doubly disadvantaged. This disadvantage does not arise because of differences in socioeconomic status between boys and girls but because the effect of a lower socioeconomic background on test scores is significant only for girls. We find that mother’s education and labor force status play an important role in the emergence of gender gaps, at both ends (top and bottom) of the income distribution. We confirm that early life circumstances continue to impact student’s achievement well into adolescence and these exacerbate gender gaps, thus demonstrating the importance of targeted early interventions to address gaps in key skills acquisition for the modern economy.
    Keywords: Australia, parental education, household income, numeracy, gender
    JEL: I20 I24 J16
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Nicholas Li (Department of Economics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada)
    Abstract: I provide evidence on long-run changes in female work for six Indian states common to the 1998-99 and 2019 time-use surveys. Rural women experienced large decreases in work time (especially paid work) but urban women did not. Men experienced larger declines in paid work but partly compensated with greater self-employment. Changes in self-reported ``usual work status'' do not provide an accurate measure of these changes in work time. Declining work for rural women is observed regardless of self-reported work status, education level, caste/religious group, or state. Leisure time for women increased, reducing the gender-gap in leisure by 50%.
    Keywords: women; gender; work; India; time-use; inequality
    JEL: J16 J22 O1
    Date: 2022–01

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