nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒02‒07
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The Role of Personality for Gender Gaps in Political Interest and Activity By Adam Ayaita
  2. Gender and Justice: Women’s Participation, Settlement, and Victory in Ottoman Courts By Metin M. Cosgel; Hamdi Genç; Emre Özer; Sadullah Yıldırım
  3. Board Gender Diversity and Firm Risk By Zyed Achour
  4. Of Women and Land: How Gender Affects Successions and Transfers of Iowa Farms By Beatrice Maule; Wendong Zhang; Qing Liu
  5. Board Gender Quotas and Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from France By Koray Aktas; Valeria Gattai; Piergiovanna Natale
  6. Lucky Women in Unlucky Cohorts: Gender Differences in the Effects of Initial Labor Market Conditions in Latin America By Inés Berniell; Leonardo Gasparini; Mariana Marchionni; Mariana Viollaz
  7. Job quality and workplace gender diversity in Europe By Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D’ambrosio; Rong Zhu
  8. Does a Governor's Gender and Political Party Affect a State's GDP Growth during the COVID-19 Pandemic? By Leah S. Sine; Seth R. Gitter

  1. By: Adam Ayaita
    Abstract: Women have been found to be, on average, less interested in politics and less politically active than men, which might reduce the representation of women’s interests in a democracy. In order to enhance the understanding of these gender gaps, this preregistered study analyzes the role of personality differences for gender gaps in political interest and activity.I use a large representative sample of the adult population in Germany for the analysis. First, I replicate the findings that women tend to have lower scores in political interest and activity and that these gaps are not fully explained by demographic, situational, and structural factors. Second, I find that the remaining gender gaps in political interest and activity are, overall, not significantly explained by gender differences in personality. However, gender differences in some specific personality traits partially explain the political gender gaps: Women’s higher average agreeableness contributes to the gender gap in political interest, and women’s higher average conscientiousness contributes to the gender gap in political activity.
    Keywords: Gender, personality, political activity, political engagement, political interest, politics
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Metin M. Cosgel (University of Connecticut); Hamdi Genç (Istanbul Medeniyet University); Emre Özer (Istanbul Medeniyet University); Sadullah Yıldırım (Marmara University)
    Abstract: We study gender’s effect on justice in Ottoman courts by analyzing differences between men and women in court participation, dispute settlement, and litigation victory. The data come from the early nineteenth century registers of the Galata and Üsküdar courts in Istanbul and the Konya and Kütahya courts in the provinces. The findings show that although the legal disputes between men dominated the courts, women were involved in about thirty percent of cases. Gender’s effect on settlement decisions varied across courts and case-types. In litigation, women were less likely than men to win as plaintiffs. Mediation analysis shows that about thirty to seventy percent of the gender gap in plaintiff victory can be attributed to differences in evidence use during trial (witness testimony, written documents, legal opinions).
    JEL: J16 K38 K4 N45
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Zyed Achour (INTES - Institut national du travail et des études sociales - Université de Carthage - University of Carthage)
    Abstract: In this chapter, we address the following question: Does board gender diversity affect global risk? Drawing on agency theory, upper echelon theory, and human capital theory, we hypothesize that gender diversity on the board of directors will decrease the volatility of firm risk. Applying fixed effect estimation on a panel data of listed French companies (SBF120) for the years 2011–2018, the results show a negative link between the percentage of female directors on the board and the standard deviation of monthly stock return as firm risk proxy suggesting that the inclusion of more women on corporate boards could improve financial stability. Our findings contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence from France occupying the first place at the European level with the most female presence on the boards of directors.1
    Keywords: board gender diversity,board of directors,corporate governance,firm risk,SBF 120
    Date: 2021–11–15
  4. By: Beatrice Maule; Wendong Zhang (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University); Qing Liu
    Abstract: Using 591 crop and livestock farmers' responses to the 2019 Iowa Farm Transfer Survey, we examine factors driving the gender imbalance in farm successor choices among Iowa farmers with a focus on female successors and landowners. Our data reveals a large gender gap-58% of farmers chose sons and only 8% chose daughters as main successor. We develop four conceptual hypotheses from a model linking farmer and successor characteristics with the farmer's probability of choosing a daughter as main successor. Our models reveal the probability of choosing daughters as main successor increases when the farmer is female, when the farmer only has daughters, when the daughters have farming experience or an agriculture-related job, and when the farm operation is a partnership with a wife. We find an 11.1% probability of a female farmer choosing a daughter as a successor, but only 4.6% for a male farmer. A daughter having an agriculture-related job increases the probability from 4.4% to 17.0%; whereas the same related experience increases a son's chance from 34.7% to 59.4%. With half of Iowa farmland owned by women, our paper reveals striking evidence of gender imbalance in farm succession, transfer, and inheritance decisions of U.S. farms.
    Date: 2022–01
  5. By: Koray Aktas; Valeria Gattai; Piergiovanna Natale
    Abstract: We show that board gender quota laws reduce the propensity of French firms to undertake outward foreign direct investment. For this, we use Orbis data for the period 2007–2015 and a difference-in-difference approach. The exogenous increase in the share of women directors decreases the share of foreign subsidiaries by 7 percentage points when the share of women directors is at its highest. The share of foreign subsidiaries is affected by the decrease in the probability of having a foreign subsidiary, which indicates disinvestment. Accordingly, the estimated effects on the number and cost of employees are negative, with no impact on firm performance.
    Keywords: Board diversity, Gender quota, Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI), Europe, Women directors.
    JEL: G30 F23 J16
    Date: 2021–12
  6. By: Inés Berniell (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Leonardo Gasparini (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP and CONICET); Mariana Marchionni (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP and CONICET); Mariana Viollaz (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper assesses gender differences in the effects of adverse conditions at labormarket entry in a developing region. Using harmonized microdata from national household surveys for 15 Latin American countries, we build a synthetic panel of cohorts that potentially transition from school to work and observe their labor market outcomes 10 years later. We find that men who faced higher unemployment rates at ages 18-20 suffer a negative effect on employment at ages 27-30. In contrast, women from those same unlucky cohorts have higher employment rates and earnings. Our results are consistent with women acting as secondary workers in downturns. We also find that women from unlucky cohorts control a larger share of family income and are more likely to be the head of household 10 years after labor market entry, and that adverse initial labor market conditions are correlated to more egalitarian perceptions about gender roles later in life.
    JEL: J16 J21 J22 J31
    Date: 2022–02
  7. By: Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Conchita D’ambrosio ( - Université du Luxembourg); Rong Zhu (Flinders University [Adelaide, Australia])
    Abstract: We here consider the relationship between workplace gender measures and employees' perceived job quality, where the former cover both the gender mix of workers with the same job title and the gender of the immediate boss. Data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey show that men's job evaluation is higher in gender-balanced job positions at the workplace, while that of women is higher in either gender-balanced or male-dominated positions. The gender of the immediate boss plays no significant role in employee job evaluation. There is some evidence that these correlations differ by job-quality domains. We introduce co-worker support and help, gender discrimination, and unwanted sexual attention as possible mediators of the gender-mix correlations: these change the estimated coefficients only little. Our estimated correlations could therefore reflect a pure preference for job-position gender composition. Last, we use a bounding approach to show that our main results are robust to the potential influence of unobservables. Overall, job-position gender diversity is associated with higher worker well-being.
    Keywords: Perceived job quality,Job-position gender diversity,Gender of immediate boss
    Date: 2021–03
  8. By: Leah S. Sine (Towson University); Seth R. Gitter (Department of Economics, Towson University)
    Abstract: In a vacuum of federal policies during the COVID crisis, U.S. state governors who were female and/or Democrats were more likely to enact public health policies that reduced COVID deaths. Using 2005–2020 quarterly data, we test whether states with female and Democratic governors experienced lower GDP growth rates during COVID. We find that states with Democratic governors experienced annual GDP growth two percentage points lower than states with Republican governors in 2020, with statistically weaker results for female governors. The two-point reduction in GDP growth is less than the economic value of estimated lives saved due to these policies.
    Keywords: Covid, Governors, Female Leadership.
    JEL: H12 H70 H75
    Date: 2022–01

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