nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒01‒31
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The Gender Application Gap: Do Men and Women Apply for the Same Jobs? By Fluchtmann, Jonas; Glenny, Anita Marie; Harmon, Nikolaj; Maibom, Jonas
  2. Gender and Disadvantage in the Evolution of Test Score Gaps By Paterson, Molly
  3. Building bridges: Bilateral manager connections and international trade By Hoch, Felix; Rudsinske, Jonas
  4. Do mobile phones empower women? A perspective from rural India By Chen, Jingjing
  5. Does boardroom diversity impact the financial performance of FTSE 350 firms? By Corniciuc, Iarina

  1. By: Fluchtmann, Jonas (Aarhus University); Glenny, Anita Marie (Ministry of Employment, Denmark); Harmon, Nikolaj (University of Copenhagen); Maibom, Jonas (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: Men and women tend to hold different jobs. Are these differences present already in the types of jobs men and women apply for? Using administrative data on job applications made by the universe of Danish UI recipients, we provide evidence on gender differences in applied-for jobs for the broader labor market. Across a range of job characteristics, we find large gender gaps in the share of applications going to different types of jobs even among observationally similar men and women. In a standard decomposition, gender differences in applications can explain more than 70 percent of the residual gender wage gap.
    Keywords: job search, wage decomposition, firm wage premium, gender earnings gap
    JEL: E24 J29 J31 J71
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Paterson, Molly (Monash University)
    Abstract: This paper details the evolution of numeracy test score gaps based on gender and socioeconomic status, particularly considering children’s early circumstances. We use the rich dataset: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to bring together two strands of literature on gaps between students on a gender and a socioeconomic basis. We establish an interrelationship between socioeconomic gaps, based on early life household income and parental education, and the gender gap in numeracy. We find that between Grades 3 to 9, boys have an advantage in numeracy scores over girls, which widens over time. By Grade 9, poorer female students are doubly disadvantaged compared to richer female students and male students. We confirm that early life circumstances continue to impact student’s achievement into adolescence, demonstrating the importance of early interventions to address gender and socioeconomic gaps.
    Keywords: Australia ; parental education ; household income ; numeracy ; gender ; decomposition JEL Classification: I24 ; J16 ; J24
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Hoch, Felix; Rudsinske, Jonas
    Abstract: We investigate whether top managers with personal ties to a foreign country facilitate trade with that country by overcoming bilateral trade barriers that obstruct international business relationships. Using individual managers' nationality, we construct a novel database of bilateral top manager connections. We analyze the trade effects of these bilateral manager connections both on the firm and on the country level. On the country level, we provide evidence for a positive effect on both bilateral exports and imports. On the firm level, we find positive effects on destination-specific foreign sales. We show that this firm-level effect is especially pronounced for institutionally distant destinations, which we interpret as bridging the gap between institutionally dissimilar countries. Furthermore, the effect is stronger for destinations with less developed institutions indicating that manager connections help overcoming trade barriers created by low institutional quality. Moreover, we show that the strength of this effect also depends on characteristics of the individual manager. Namely, the effect differs between connections of male and female managers. Gender discriminating institutions in the destination country severely downsize the pro-trade effect of female managers' connections, which could give rise to an unintended importing of gender inequality regarding management positions.
    Keywords: International trade,gravity,international business,board composition,institutions,gender equality
    JEL: F14 F22 F23 J16 J61 K38 M16
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Chen, Jingjing (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Empowerment for girls and women, Goal 5 for the Sustainable Development Goals, is the key for economic development. As mobile phones become cheaper and more prevalent, a growing number of researchers are investigating their impact on women's empowerment. Most previous research has relied on interviews and cross-sectional data, so their conclusion limited to the association rather than establishing the causal relationship between mobile phones and female empowerment. This paper used Indian Human Development Survey 2005 and 2011-2012 to study the association between mobile phone ownership and women's empowerment in rural India. Then difference in- difference strategy was applied to identify the causal impact of village mobile phone service installation on female empowerment. Like previous studies, the results from this paper suggest that mobile phone ownership was associated with higher women's empowerment. Moreover, mobile phone service installation increased women's involvement in decision-making process but it decreased female labour force participation and contraceptive usage in rural India.
    Keywords: gender equality ; empower women ; mobile phones ; decision making power ; freedom of movement JEL Classification: J12 ; J13 ; J16
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Corniciuc, Iarina (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of diversity on a firm's financial performance, a topic which requires more research due to the fast changes in boardroom composition and the inconclusive previous literature. The main analysis utilises panel data with a fixed effect model to examine FTSE 350 UK firms between 2001 and 2020. Results show that the percent of females is positively and significantly correlated with the two firm performance variables, Tobin's Q and ROA. Initial results also show that a higher count of nationalities have a positive and significant impact on firm performance. These results are in line with various theories which state that diverse groups are found to be more innovative as they cover a wider range of knowledge. The paper provides empirical proof of token theory, which states that gender diversity below a threshold of 15% has a negative impact on a firm's performance. This could be due to being perceived as a minority causing isolation, which in turn impacts performance. Results also show that the critical mass point, where most benefits are reaped in the relationship, lies at 40% and above female directors. This is in line with the proposed EU directive of a quota of 40% female directors.Â
    Keywords: G34 ; G38 ; J15 ; J16 ; J48 JEL Classification: Corporate Governance ; Board Diversity ; Critical Mass Theory ; Token Theory ; Performance
    Date: 2021

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