nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒01‒17
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Changing gender norms across generations: Evidence from a paternity leave reform By Lidia Farré; Cristina Felfe; Libertad González Luna; Patrick Schneider
  2. Gender Norms and the Motherhood Employment Gap By Simone MORICONI; Núria RODRIGUEZ-PLANAS
  3. Effects of Emigration on Gender Norms in Countries of Origin By Leonid V. Azarnert; Slava Yakubenko
  4. Gender Differences in Early Occupational Choices: Evidence from Medical Specialty Selection By Josep Amer-Mestre and Agnès Charpin
  5. Of housewives and feminists: Gender norms and intra-household division of labour By Luise Görges
  6. The gender productivity gap: Evidence from the Indian informal sector By Ira N. Gang; Rajesh Raj Natarajan; Kunal Sen; Myeong-Su Yun
  7. Gender Inequality and Economic Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Onogwu, Daniel
  8. Men are from Mars, and women too: a Bayesian meta-analysis of overconfidence experiments By Oriana Bandiera; Nidhi Parekh; Barbara Petrongolo; Michelle Rao
  9. Maternal mortality and women’s political participation By Bhalotra. Sonia; Clarke, Damian; Gomes, Joseph F.; Venkataramani, Atheendar

  1. By: Lidia Farré; Cristina Felfe; Libertad González Luna; Patrick Schneider
    Abstract: Direct exposure to counter-stereotypical behaviors early in life has been put forward as a promising way to change gender norms across generations. We ask to which extent public policy designed to promote counter-stereotypical behavior among parents influences gender norms for their children. Specifically, we combine the national-level introduction of paternity leave in Spain with a unique, large-scale lab-in-the-field experiment conducted with children born around the policy change. We provide causal evidence that, at age 12, children whose fathers were eligible for paternity leave exhibit more egalitarian attitudes towards gender roles and are more supportive of mothers and fathers being equally engaged in the labor market and in the home. They also engage more in counter-stereotypical day-to-day behaviors and expect to deviate from the male-breadwinner model in the future.
    Keywords: Gender role attitudes, paternity leave, social norms
    JEL: J08 J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Simone MORICONI (IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Économie Management, F-59000 Lille, France); Núria RODRIGUEZ-PLANAS (City University of New York, Queens College and The Graduate Center, and Barnard College at Columbia University)
    Abstract: Using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, we study the relevance of gender norms in accounting for the motherhood employment gap across 186 European NUTS2 regions (over 29 countries) for the 2002-2016 period. The gender norm variable is taken from a question on whether “men should have more right to a job than women when jobs are scarce” and represents the average extent of disagreement (on a scale 1 to 5) of women belonging to the “grandmothers” cohort. We address the potential endogeneity of our gender norms measure with an index of the degree of reproductive health liberalization when grandmothers were 20 years old. We also account for the endogeneity of motherhood with the level of reproductive health liberalization when mothers were 20 years old. We find a robust positive association between progressive beliefs among the grandmothers’ cohort and mothers’ likelihood to work while having a small child (0 to 5 years old) relative to similar women without children. No similar association is found among men. Our analysis underscores the role of gender norms and maternal employment, suggesting that non-traditional gender norms mediate on the employment gender gap mainly via motherhood.
    Keywords: : gender norms, motherhood employment gap, instrumenting for motherhood
    JEL: J16 J22
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Leonid V. Azarnert; Slava Yakubenko
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of emigration on gender norms in countries of migrants’ origin. We use an instrumental variable strategy that allows us to estimate a causal effect of emigration on gender inequality. Our findings suggest that emigration to countries with low (high) levels of gender inequality is associated with promotion of more (less) progressive gender norms. These effects are observed for a wide range of indicators and are robust to inclusion of a set of control variables. Moreover, countries with high levels of gender inequality benefit from this process disproportionately more. Based on the provided evidence we argue that this effect is channelled through “cultural remittances”.
    Keywords: migration, gender, cultural remittances
    JEL: F22 F63 J16
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Josep Amer-Mestre and Agnès Charpin
    Abstract: Empirical evidence shows that men and women hold different types of occupations. It is however difficult to disentangle the channels via which these differences come about because observed equilibrium outcomes arise from preferences of agents on both sides of the market, and from search and matching frictions. This paper relies on a unique labour market setting allowing to isolate the supply side factors driving gender-based occupational segregation. We find that female and male medical students facing the same pool of available positions make drastically different occupational decisions. Women prefer occupations characterised by lower expected earnings and time requirements, less competition, and a higher social contribution. Using individual data containing both revealed and stated preferences for residency positions, we find evidence suggesting that when constrained in their choices, women have a stronger preference for the location in which they are going to live than their male counterparts.
    Keywords: Occupational segregation, Gender, Labour market, Job attributes
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Luise Görges (Leuphana University of Lüneburg)
    Abstract: To investigate the role of gender norms in household specialisation choices, I conduct a lab experiment with real hetero-sexual couples playing a battle of the sexes game. The salience of gender norms varies across treatments: the Norm group chooses between strategies labelled as a family specialisation game (Career vs. Family), the Neutral group chooses A vs. B. Women respond strongly to the salience of Norms; they opt for Career at a significantly lower rate compared to Neutral, regardless of familiarity with their partner. By contrast, men’s response is weak and heterogeneous across partner and stranger pairings. Additional analyses suggest that the pattern is not explained by differential beliefs, but is consistent with marriage market motives, i.e. some men may want to signal progressive gender attitudes to their partner.
    Keywords: Experiment, labour division, battle of the sexes, norms, gender
    JEL: D13 J16 J22
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Ira N. Gang; Rajesh Raj Natarajan; Kunal Sen; Myeong-Su Yun
    Abstract: We examine the patterns and correlates of the productivity gap between male-owned and female-owned firms for informal enterprises in India. Female-owned firms are on average 45 per cent less productive than male-owned firms, with the clearest productivity gaps observed at the lower end of the productivity distribution. Using decomposition methods, we find that about 73 per cent of the productivity gap can be explained by structural effect, with the remainder being due to differences in observable characteristics as captured by composition effect.
    Keywords: Gender, Productivity gap, India, Decomposition methods, Informal sector
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Onogwu, Daniel
    Abstract: Abstract In developed countries, there is a substantial gender convergence over the last century. This cannot be said for Sub-Saharan Africa. Women are underrepresented in most economic and political spheres of the region. The implication is that the overall productivity decreases in the region. This study provides empirical evidence of gender inequality on economic development in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. I conduct panel regression of 29 Sub Sahara African countries over the period from 1996 to 2019. The results show that there is a significant negative impact of gender inequality on economic development in the region, holding other variables constant. Conversely, gender parity has a positive effect on economic development as evidence in the results. I also find that, Capital accumulation (proxy as Gross Capital Formation), trade openness and population growth are key drivers of economic development of the region. I recommend policies that promote gender equity, trade openness, and growth of healthy population to promote economic development in the region.
    Keywords: Keywords: Economic development, Gross Capital Formation, inequality, trade, panel regression
    JEL: J16 O1
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Oriana Bandiera; Nidhi Parekh; Barbara Petrongolo; Michelle Rao
    Abstract: Gender differences in self-confidence could explain women’s under representation in high-income occupations and glass-ceiling effects. We draw lessons from the economic literature via a survey of experts and a Bayesian hierarchical model that aggregates exper imental findings over the last twenty years. The experts’ survey indicates beliefs that men are overconfident and women under-confident. Yet, the literature reveals that both men and women are typically overconfident. Moreover, the model cannot reject the hypothe sis that gender differences in self-confidence are equal to zero. In addition, the estimated pooling factor is low, implying that each study contains little information over a common phenomenon. The discordance can be reconciled if the experts overestimate the pooling factor or have priors that are biased and precise.
    Date: 2021–12–16
  9. By: Bhalotra. Sonia (University of Warwick); Clarke, Damian (Universidad de Chile); Gomes, Joseph F. (UC Louvain); Venkataramani, Atheendar (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: Millions of women continue to die during and soon after childbirth, even where the knowledge and resources to avoid this are available. We posit that raising the share of women in parliament can trigger action. Leveraging the timing of gender quota legislation across developing countries, we identify sharp sustained reductions of 8–10 percent in maternal mortality. Investigating mechanisms, we find that gender quotas lead to increases in percentage points of 5–8 in skilled birth attendance and 4–8 in prenatal care utilization, alongside a decline in fertility of 6–7 percent and an increase in the schooling of young women of about 0.5 years. The results are robust to numerous robustness checks. They suggest a new policy tool for tackling maternal mortality.
    Keywords: maternal mortality ; women’s political representation ; gender ; quotas ; reproductive health services ; fertility ; schooling. JEL Classification: I14 ; I15 ; O15
    Date: 2021

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