nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2022‒01‒10
eleven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender Differences in Medical Evaluations: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Doctors By Marika Cabral; Marcus Dillender
  2. Privilege and Hindrance on the U.S. Earnings Distribution by Gender and Race/Ethnicity: The Role of Occupations in an Intersectional Framework with 12 Groups By Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río
  3. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 LOCKDOWN ON THE GENDER GAP IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET By Giulia Bettin; Isabella Giorgetti; Stefano Staffolani
  4. COVID-19, Gender and Labour By Corsi, Marcella; Ilkkaracan, Ipek
  5. How institutions moderate the effect of gender diversity on firm performance By Hoch, Felix; Seyberth, Lilo
  6. Do female parliamentarians improve environmental quality? Cross-country evidence By Simplice A. Asongu; Raufhon Salahodjaev
  7. Gender, Race, and Class in an Intersectional Framework: Occupations and Wages in the United States By Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río
  8. Women and Economics Workshops Run by Gary Becker and Jacob Mincer at Columbia University and the University of Chicago By Andrea Beller; Shoshana Grossbard; Ana Fava; Marouane Idmansour
  9. Epidemics, Gender, and Human Capital in Developing Countries By Carine Meyimdjui; Diego B. P. Gomes; Marina M. Tavares; Ms. Stefania Fabrizio
  10. Women's parliamentary representation and environmental quality in Africa: Effects and transmission channels By Edmond Noubissi; Loudi Njoya
  11. Measuring the Child Penalty Early in a Career By Stephen Bazen; Xavier Joutard; Hélène Périvier

  1. By: Marika Cabral; Marcus Dillender
    Abstract: While a growing body of evidence documents large gender disparities in health care and related social insurance programs, little is known about what drives these disparities. We leverage administrative data and random assignment of doctors to patients inherent within the workers’ compensation insurance claim dispute resolution process to study the impact of gender match between doctors and patients on medical evaluations and subsequent social insurance benefits received. Compared to differences among their male patient counterparts, female patients randomly assigned a female doctor rather than a male doctor are 5.0% more likely to be evaluated as disabled and receive 8.5% more subsequent cash benefits on average. There is no analogous gender-match effect for male patients. The magnitude of these effects implies that having female doctors evaluate patients entirely offsets the observed gender gap in the likelihood of being evaluated as disabled when male doctors evaluate patients. We explore mechanisms through further analysis of the administrative data and complementary survey evidence. In addition, we present broader evidence on gender gaps in workers' compensation insurance and gender homophily in patients' selections of doctors in settings where patients have choice. Combining this evidence, we conduct policy counterfactuals illustrating how policies increasing gender diversity among doctors or increasing gender homophily in patient-doctor matches may impact gender gaps in evaluated disability. Our findings indicate that policies increasing the share of female patients evaluated by female doctors may substantially shrink gender gaps in medical evaluations and associated outcomes.
    JEL: I11 I14 J16
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río
    Abstract: If gender and race/ethnicity did not privilege some groups and harm others in the labor market, one would expect that groups that do not differ in terms of human capital, geographic location, and other basic characteristics would earn wages around average. However, our counterfactual analysis shows substantial disparities among our 12 gender–race/ethnicity groups. All female groups, except Asians, have conditional wages well below average, especially, Native American, Black, and Hispanic women. Moreover, all female groups have conditional wages below those of any male group (except Asian women, who rank above Black men). Male advantage seems to be concentrated in two races, Asians and Whites; the other male groups have conditional wages either below average (Black men) or around average (Hispanic, Native American, and “other race” men). Our intersectional framework allows delving deeper into the gender and race penalties. White women’s gender penalty is much larger than the racial penalty of any male (or female) group. Similarly, Asian women’ gender penalty is larger than the racial penalty of any male group except for Blacks. Distinguishing among more than 400 occupational categories, we find that underpayment within occupations harms especially Native American women whereas occupational sorting strongly impacts Black women (even after including controls). Black men’s occupational sorting also harms them after controlling for characteristics, a finding that we do not see in any other male group.
    Keywords: Earnings, Occupations, Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Intersectionality
    JEL: D63 J15 J16 J71
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Giulia Bettin (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche); Isabella Giorgetti (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche); Stefano Staffolani (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: We study the gendered impact of the nationwide lockdown (March-May 2020) due to the Covid-19 pandemic on the Italian labour market. By using Labour Force Survey data on the first three quarters of 2020, we define a Triple Difference-in-Differences (DDD) strategy by exploiting the exact timing of the lockdown implementation. We found that in non essential sectors (treated group) the lockdown enlarged pre-existent gender inequalities in the extensive margin of labour force participation: the probability of job loss got 0.7 p.p. higher among female workers compared to their male counterparts, and this difference was mainly detected during the reopening period rather than in the strict lockdown phase. The probability to benefit from the wage guarantee fund (CIG) was also higher for female compared to male treated workers (3.6 p.p.), both during the lockdown and in the reopening phase. This is a great change with respect to the past, when men had always been more likely to benefit from this measure due to the fact that CIG application was traditionally restricted to male-dominated sectors of employment. On the other hand, no significant gender differences emerged among the treated group either on the intensive margin, in terms of working hours, or in terms of remote working, at least in the medium-term.
    Keywords: Covid-19, lockdown, labour market, gender gap, difference-indifferences
    JEL: C21 D04 J16 J21
    Date: 2022–01
  4. By: Corsi, Marcella; Ilkkaracan, Ipek
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has triggered simultaneously a global health crisis and a global economic crisis which have further deepened existing inequalities along several dimensions, including gender. Increasing gender inequalities in paid and unpaid work has been a primary outcome of the pandemic and the associated economic crisis. Given the disproportionate gender division of labor, women were foremost in bearing the brunt of the increased demands on unpaid care work under the lockdown conditions. At the same time, women were also overrepresented in informal employment and service sectors hard-hit by the pandemic resulting in more severe job loss for female workers overall. In many labor markets, women constituted the majority of so-called essential workers, who were protected from job loss yet exposed to increased health risks and prolonged work hours under distressed work conditions. The increasing demand for household production and the unpaid work burden contributed to weakening women's labor market attachment resulting in higher declines in female labor force participation than male. The increased prevalence of teleworking under the pandemic has the potential to provide improved work-life balance conditions, yet at the risk of widening the gender inequalities in the labor market. While these outcomes point to the threat that Covid-19 poses at rolling back the gains achieved in gender equality, the experiences under the pandemic conditions have also contributed to increased awareness around the Globe of the importance of caring labor and care workers, establishing a solid basis for advocacy of gender equal care policies.
    Keywords: COVID-19,gender,paid and unpaid work,work-life balance,telework
    JEL: B54 J08 J01
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Hoch, Felix; Seyberth, Lilo
    Abstract: Research investigating the relationship between firm performance and gender diversity has so far reported conflicting evidence: Some studies find firm performance to benefit from gender diversity, others find negative results or no effect at all. Taking this inconclusive evidence as a sign for moderators influencing the effect of gender diversity on firm performance, we investigate the moderating influence of institutions on this relationship. Using data on 7,661 firms in 71 countries, we employ a multilevel linear regression with fixed effects to examine the moderating effect of formal as well as informal institutional characteristics. We find that institutions indeed moderate the relationship between gender diversity and firm performance. In particular, informal institutions seem to moderate the effect of diversity on market valuation (Tobin's Q), while formal institutions moderate the effect of gender diversity on firm financial performance (ROA). These results have important theoretical implications for the academic debate on gender diversity and firm performance as well as practical implications for both businesses and lawmakers.
    JEL: J16 J71 L25 M12 M14
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Raufhon Salahodjaev (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)
    Abstract: This study explores the empowerment of women in politics on the environmental sustainability. Using data for the period 2015-2019 from 179 countries, we investigate the link between representation of women in parliament and the Environmental Performance Index (EPI). To explore the causal effect, we rely on gender quotas, language intensity and land suitability for agriculture as instruments for the share of women in parliament. Our results suggest that 10 percentage points increase in instrumented proportion of women in parliament leads to 7.1 points increase in the EPI. The results remain robust to a number of robustness checks.
    Keywords: environmental performance, women in parliament
    JEL: Q50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–01
  7. By: Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río
    Abstract: The literature offers limited insights into the labor market experiences of women and men of different racial/ethnic groups by social class beyond considering their educational achievements or occupational status, common proxies for social class, or their positions on the wage distribution. This paper follows a different approach by thinking of class as life conditions at the family level, which we approximate with family income, and by exploring wages at the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and family class. Dealing with “individuals in families,” this paper delves deeper into the stratification of women and racial minorities. Our analysis suggests that the “mark of gender” extends beyond race and class. No matter the social class to which individuals belong, women of any race/ethnicity receive conditional wages below the average wage of workers in the corresponding class. Our investigation also suggests that the racial wage penalty of Black women (vis-à-vis White women) stems from a stratification by class that penalizes them. When compared with individuals of the same class, Black women do not earn less than White women with similar characteristics do. On the contrary, the wage disadvantage of Black men (vis-à-vis White men) goes beyond class. No matter the class to which they belong, Black men have lower wages than comparable White men do because they tend to concentrate in occupations that pay less.
    Keywords: Class, Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Occupations, Earnings
    JEL: D63 J15 J16 J71
    Date: 2021–10
  8. By: Andrea Beller (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Shoshana Grossbard (San Diego State University); Ana Fava (Federal University of ABC); Marouane Idmansour (Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion)
    Abstract: In the period 1960-1980 Gary Becker founded workshops for graduate students in economics, first the Labor Workshop at Columbia University and then the Applications of Economics Workshop at the University of Chicago. The workshops fostered novel applications of economics dealing with labor, consumption, household production, household formation, human capital, crime and politics. We document the high proportion of women in these workshops, comparing (1) Columbia to Chicago, (2) the Columbia Labor Workshop over various periods, under the leadership of Becker, Mincer, or both, and (3) the Becker-founded workshops to other workshops at Columbia. We estimate regressions of the odds that a PhD was awarded to a woman for students at Columbia or Chicago who graduated between 1960 and 1980, as a function of whether and when the student participated in a Becker-founded workshop. Tentative explanations are offered for inter-university and period variation in odds that graduates were women. In addition, we compare gender ratios of graduates from Columbia and Chicago, where Becker-founded workshops were available during all or part of the period, with that of students at universities located nearby, NYU and Northwestern, where Becker did not found workshops.
    Keywords: graduate education, graduation rates, gender ratios in economics
    JEL: A23 A14 J16
    Date: 2021–12
  9. By: Carine Meyimdjui; Diego B. P. Gomes; Marina M. Tavares; Ms. Stefania Fabrizio
    Abstract: Epidemics have disrupted lives for centuries with deleterious human capital and economic repercussions. In this paper, we investigate how epidemics episodes have impacted school dropouts in developing countries, considering 623 epidemics episodes across countries from 1970 to 2019. Our estimates show that, on average, epidemics reduce completion rates by about 2.6 and 2.1 percentage points in primary and lower secondary education respectively, with girls more severely affected than boys. Using detailed micro data for Senegal, we also estimate the potential loss of lifelong earnings and find that the potential labor earnings loss from dropping out of primary and secondary school is almost double for girls than for boys.
    Keywords: Epidemics, Education, Development
    Date: 2021–11–05
  10. By: Edmond Noubissi (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Loudi Njoya (University of Dschang, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between gender and the environment. There are indeed very few studies on this topic, and existing studies have not yet investigated the channels through which women's presence in parliaments affects the environment. We use a stochastic impact model extended to the population, wealth and technology regression model to estimate both the effect and transmission of women parliamentarians on the environment in 25 African countries from 2000 to 2016. The empirical results show that the presence of women in parliament contributes to the improvement of environmental quality in Africa. In addition, the mediation analysis reveals that women parliamentarians not only have a direct positive effect on the environment but also a positive indirect effect through their impact on per capita income, corruption and development assistance. To enhance the positive effects of women parliamentarians on the environment, governments should design policies to encourage women to participate in economic activities, integrate anti-corruption programmes and participate in the management of development assistance.
    Keywords: Women's parliamentary, environmental quality, African countries
    JEL: F63 F64 J16
    Date: 2021–01
  11. By: Stephen Bazen; Xavier Joutard; Hélène Périvier (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: There is a large literature on the existence of a child penalty for mothers after the birth of a child. There is little discernible effect on fathers' labour incomes, although some studies find that there is a premium. We measure the penalty due to the birth of a first child for both parents for cohorts of young adults after leaving the educational system. Using an event study approach, this paper contributes to the literature by examining the child penalty in France not only in terms of monthly earnings, but also the employment rate, working hours, hourly earnings, and other outcomes. Using on a rich dataset, we estimate child penalty by educational level and for different cohorts. We find evidence of a significant child penalty for mothers: 23% in monthly earnings overall, rising to 35% for those with secondary education only. For the 2010 cohort, we observe the same level of absolute child penalties for mothers, whereas the relative penalty has narrowed. This is due to a decrease in monthly earnings, and more precisely in employment rate of fathers before and after the birth of the child in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis.
    Keywords: event study,young adults,child penalty
    Date: 2021–10

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