nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒11‒29
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Does Corruption Discourage More Female Entrepreneurs from Applying for Credit? By Jean-Christophe STATNIK; Thi-Le Giang VU; Laurent WEILL
  2. Decomposing Gender Differences in Bankcard Credit Limits By Nathan Blascak; Anna Tranfaglia
  3. The Gender Gap in Preferences: Evidence from 45,397 Facebook Interests By Ángel Cuevas; Rubén Cuevas; Klaus Desmet; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortín
  4. The Evolving Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Gender Inequality in the U.S. Labor Market: The COVID Motherhood Penalty By Robert W. Fairlie; Kenneth Couch; Huanan Xu
  5. Girls Will Be Girls? The Gendered Effect of Economic Policy Uncertainty on Corporate Investment By Caroline PERRIN; Laurent WEILL
  6. Effects of COVID-19 on Regional and Gender Equality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria and Ethiopia By Ms. Chie Aoyagi

  1. By: Jean-Christophe STATNIK (Université de Lille, Yncréa Lille); Thi-Le Giang VU (Université de Lille); Laurent WEILL (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: There is evidence of a gender gap in access to finance. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that corruption discourages more female than male entrepreneurs from applying for credit. We use data on access to credit and corruption at the firm level for a large dataset of firms from 68 countries worldwide. We demonstrate that female entrepreneurs are more discouraged by corruption to ask for credit than male borrowers. We find evidence for two explanations for the gendered impact of corruption on borrower discouragement: women have less experience in management than men and as such can have less experience to deal with corruption, and gender inequality in society enhances the discouragement of female borrowers. Thus, our findings provide evidence that corruption enhances the gender gap in access to finance, enhancing gender inequality in participation in economic activity.
    Keywords: gender, access to credit, borrower discouragement, corruption.
    JEL: D73 G21 J16
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Nathan Blascak; Anna Tranfaglia
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine if there are gender differences in total bankcard limits by utilizing a data set that links mortgage applicant information with individual-level credit bureau data from 2006 to 2016. We document that after controlling for credit score, income, and demographic characteristics, male borrowers on average have higher total bankcard limits than female borrowers. Using a standard Kitagawa-Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, we find that 87 percent of the gap is explained by differences in the effect of observed characteristics between male and female borrowers, while approximately 10 percent of the difference can be explained by differences in the levels of observed characteristics. Using a quantile decomposition strategy to analyze the gender gap along the entire bankcard credit limit distribution, we show that gender differences in bankcard limits favor female borrowers at smaller limits and favor male borrowers at larger limits. The primary factors that drive this gap have changed over time and vary across the distribution of credit limits.
    Keywords: gender; credit; credit cards; decomposition
    JEL: J16 G51 G53
    Date: 2021–11–02
  3. By: Ángel Cuevas; Rubén Cuevas; Klaus Desmet; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortín
    Abstract: This paper uses information on the frequency of 45,397 Facebook interests to study how the difference in preferences between men and women changes with a country's degree of gender equality. For preference dimensions that are systematically biased toward the same gender across the globe, differences between men and women are larger in more gender-equal countries. In contrast, for preference dimensions with a gender bias that varies across countries, the opposite holds. This finding takes an important step toward reconciling evolutionary psychology and social role theory as they relate to gender.
    JEL: D01 D10 D90 D91 J16 O57 Z1
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Robert W. Fairlie; Kenneth Couch; Huanan Xu
    Abstract: We explore whether COVID-19 disproportionately affected women in the labor market using CPS data through the end of 2020. We find that male-female gaps in the employment-to-population ratio and hours worked for women with school-age children have widened but not for those with younger children. Triple-difference estimates are consistent with most of the reductions observed for women with school-age children being attributable to additional child care responsibilities (the “COVID motherhood penalty”). Conducting decompositions, we find women had a greater likelihood to telework, higher education levels and a less-impacted occupational distribution, which all contributed to lessening negative impacts relative to men.
    JEL: J16
    Date: 2021–10
  5. By: Caroline PERRIN (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg); Laurent WEILL (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of CEO gender on the relation between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and corporate investment. Using the newspaper-based EPU index developed by Baker, Bloom, and Davis (2016), we perform an empirical investigation on firm-level data of more than 38,000 firms from eight European countries for 2010-2019. We find evidence that higher EPU is associated with higher corporate investment. However, we show that this beneficial effect of economic policy uncertainty is lower when the firm CEO is a woman. We explain this finding by the higher risk aversion of women relative to men. Our main results are robust to a battery of sensitivity tests. Our work contributes to the debate on the impact of EPU on firm corporate decisions by bringing upfront the influence of CEO gender.
    Keywords: Economic policy uncertainty, firm investment, CEO gender.
    JEL: G30 G32 J16
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Ms. Chie Aoyagi
    Abstract: The labor structure in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by a high share of informal employment in the rural agricultural sector. The impact of COVID-19 on female employment may not appear to be large as the share of such employment is particularly high among women. Nevertheless, widespread income reduction was observed both in rural and urban households. This could worsen the opportunities for women as husbands’ control over the household resource is the norm. The paper also finds that rural children struggled to continue learning during school closures. Gender-sensitive policies are needed to narrow the gap during and post-pandemic.
    Keywords: labor structure in sub-Saharan Africa; labor market structure; gender-sensitive policy; family worker; employment loss; Women; Employment; COVID-19; Income; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa
    Date: 2021–06–18

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