nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒11‒22
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Women in Engineering: The Role of Role Models By Agurto, M.; Bazan, M.; Hari, S.; Sarangi, S.
  2. Counting missing women: A reconciliation of the "flow measure" and the "stock measure" By Ebert, Cara; Klasen, Stephan; Vollmer, Sebastian
  3. Solving it correctly Prevalence and Persistence of Gender Gap in Basic Mathematics in rural India By Upasak Das; Karan Singhal
  4. Gender Discrimination and the Biased Indian Labour Market: Evidence from the National Sample Survey By Gupta, Pallavi; Kothe, Satyanarayan
  5. Work and children in Spain: challenges and opportunities for equality between men and women By Hupkau, Claudia; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer
  6. Women’s economic rights in developing countries and the gender gap in migration to Germany By Neumayer, Eric; Plumper, Thomas
  7. Racial Difference in Child Penalty By Li, Jiaqi

  1. By: Agurto, M.; Bazan, M.; Hari, S.; Sarangi, S.
    Abstract: Gender disparities in STEM fields participation are a major cause of concern for policymakers around the world. In addition to talent misallocation, low female enrollment rates in STEM careers contribute to gender-based inequalities in earnings and wealth, given the higher average level of earnings in these fields. This paper studies the effects of exposure to role models on female preferences for STEM majors. We conduct a randomized control trial where female senior students currently enrolled in engineering programs at an elite private university in Peru give talks about their experiences at randomly selected high schools. We find that exposure to this treatment increases high ability female students' preferences for engineering programs by 14 percentage points. The effect is only statistically significant for the subgroup of female students with baseline math scores in the top 25 percentile, and who reside close to the city where the role models' university is located. We also find positive but smaller effects on "low ability" male students. In a context where females are discouraged from enrolling in STEM fields, our results have important policy implications.
    Keywords: Enrollment gender gap,field experiment,role models,Higher Education,career choices,stereotypes
    JEL: C93 I23 I24 J16
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Ebert, Cara; Klasen, Stephan; Vollmer, Sebastian
    Abstract: Existing estimates of the 'tock of missing women' suggest that the problem is mostly concentrated in South and East Asia, and often related to sex-selective abortions and postbirth neglect of female children. In contrast, estimates of yearly excess female deaths, referred to as the 'flow of missing women', suggest that gender bias in mortality is much larger than previously found (about 4 to 5 million excess female deaths per year vs. around 100 million missing women in total), is as severe among adults as it is among children in India, and is larger in Sub-Saharan Africa than in South and East Asia. We argue that these findings largely rely on the choice of the reference standard for sex-specific mortality and an incomplete correction for different disease environments in the flow measure. When alternative reference standards are used, the results of the flow measure can be reconciled with previous findings of the stock measure.
    Keywords: Missing women,gender bias,mortality,disease,age,Sub-Saharan Africa,China,India
    JEL: J16 D63 I10
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Upasak Das; Karan Singhal
    Abstract: Mathematical ability is among the most important determinants of prospering in the labour market. Using multiple representative datasets with learning outcomes of over 2 million children from rural India in the age group 8 to 16 years, the paper examines the prevalence of gender gap in performance in mathematics and its temporal variation from 2010 to 2018. Our findings from the regressions show significant gender gap in mathematics, which is not observable for reading skills. This difference in mathematics scores remains prevalent across households of different socio-economic and demographic groups. This gap is found to be persistent over time and it appears to increase as the children get older. We also find significant inter-state variation with the north Indian states lagging behind considerably and the south Indian states showing a reverse gender gap. As an explanation to this, we observe evidence of a robust association between pre-existing gender norms at the household and district level with higher gender gap. The findings, in light of other available evidence on the consequences of such gaps, call for the need to understand these gender specific differences more granularly and periodically to inform gender-specific interventions.
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Gupta, Pallavi; Kothe, Satyanarayan
    Abstract: Gender gaps in wages are a reflection of inequality and discrimination. This exists across region, sector, type of work and other divisions. Discrimination, is a presence of inequalities between male and female workers with similar skills and in similar occupations. Therefore only understanding wage inequality may be looking at the problem partially. Using the Indian National Sample Survey, the paper examines the facets of gender-based wage inequality and discrimination in regular and casual workers. First, Theil index is calculated to interpret within and between groups inequalities. Then, a Three-fold Oaxaca decomposition method is utilised to divide the wage gaps between explained, unexplained and interaction components. Results show that even though the returns on education are higher for women than men at each level of education, females continue to earn less. Wage gaps largely attributed to unexplained components and more prominent in occupational divisions. Discrimination is greater in regular employment as compared to casual employment; higher in urban as compared to rural areas and gets worse at lower level of occupations. It is also observed that women workers are discriminated against on the basis of age; and gender inequalities are worse than social inequalities.
    Keywords: gender inequality, Theil index, Threefold Oaxaca decomposition, wage discrimination. NSS (EUS) 68th round, NCO 2004, returns to education.
    JEL: I26 J10 J16 J31 J7
    Date: 2021–06–15
  5. By: Hupkau, Claudia; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer
    Abstract: Over the past decades, Spain has seen a striking convergence between women’s and men’s participation in the labour market. However, this convergence has stalled since the early 2010s. We show that women still fare worse in several important labour market dimensions. Gender inequalities are further aggravated among people with children. Women with children under 16 are much more likely to be unemployed, work part-time or on temporary contracts than men with children of the same age. We show that it is unlikely that preferences alone can account for these gaps. A review of the evidence shows that family policies, such as paternity leave expansions, financial incentives in the form of tax credits for working mothers and subsidised or free childcare for very young children, could help reduce the motherhood penalty. However, such policies are likely to be more effective if combined with advances in breaking up traditional gender roles.
    Keywords: family policy; gender gaps; inequality; motherhood penalty
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–10–04
  6. By: Neumayer, Eric; Plumper, Thomas
    Abstract: There is a large variation across countries of origin in the gender composition of migrants coming to Germany. We argue that women's economic rights in developing countries of origin have three effects on their migration prospects to a place like Germany that is far away and difficult to reach. First, the lower are women's economic rights the fewer women have access to and control over the resources needed to migrate to Germany. Second, the lower are the rights the lower is women's agency to make or otherwise influence migration decisions. These two constraining effects on the female share in migrant populations dominate the opposing third effect that stems from low levels of women's economic rights generating a potentially powerful push factor. We find corroborating evidence in our analysis of the gender composition of migration to Germany over the period 2009-2017.
    Keywords: migration; economic rights; gender; resources; agency; Internal OA fund
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2021–10–13
  7. By: Li, Jiaqi (Department of Economics, The University of Warwick)
    Abstract: This paper documents large racial differences in the child penalty. Following first childbirth, Black women experience a significantly smaller reduction in labour supply, compared to white women. Most of the racial differences cannot be explained by economic and demographic variables, except household non-labour income. Furthermore, such racial difference widens when controlling for maternal years of schooling, occupation and industries. Finally, it shows that racial difference in child penalty is not correlated with the racial difference in gender norms.
    Keywords: Race ; Child Penalty ; Gender Norm ; Non-labour Income JEL Classification: J13 ; J15 ; J16 ; J22
    Date: 2021

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