nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒11‒08
two papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Early Socialization and the Gender Wage Gap By Getik, Demid; Meier, Armando N.
  2. Can parental leave be shared? By Hélène Périvier; Gregory Verdugo

  1. By: Getik, Demid (Department of Economics, Lund University); Meier, Armando N. (University of Lausanne, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We study the impact of early socialization on gender inequality in the labor market. To this end, we link the gender environment in the primary-school cohort to later occupations and wages. We find that women exposed to more girls at this critical age earn more later on, leading to a reduction in the gender wage gap. We explore mechanisms and find that women exposed to a more female-dominated environment select into less gender-stereotypical occupations with higher wage potential. The gender environment at an early age, therefore, shapes career trajectories and lifetime earnings.
    Keywords: Socialization; school environment; peers; occupational sorting; gender wage gap
    JEL: D91 I24 I26 J16 J24 J70
    Date: 2021–10–28
  2. By: Hélène Périvier (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Gregory Verdugo (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We examine the consequences of recent policies promoting parental leave sharing using a 2015 French reform. The reform reduced the duration of mothers' paid leave to give 12 months of non transferable leave to fathers. Leave can be taken while working part-time for up to 80% of standard working hours, which can be a more attractive option for fathers. We find that the take-up rates for fathers remained low, as less than 3% of fathers took any form of leave after the reform. Surprisingly, we also find low take-up rates for fathers working part-time after the reform and for whom taking paid part-time leave would have increased their median income by 15% without requiring them to change in their labour supply. For fathers working part-time, non-take-up rates of part-time leave benefits are as high as 81% compared with less than 25% for mothers. The reform dramatically increased the annual earnings of mothers, but it had no effect on the earnings of fathers.
    Keywords: parental leave,labor supply,gender inequality
    Date: 2021

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