nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒10‒11
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. From Micro to Macro Gender Differences: Evidence from Field Tournaments By José De Sousa; Guillaume Hollard
  2. The Dynamics of the Gender Gap at Retirement in Italy: Evidence from SHARE By ABATEMARCO, Antonio; RUSSOLILLO, Maria
  3. Does Rosie like riveting? Male and female occupational choices By Lordan, Grace; Pischke, Jorn-Steffen

  1. By: José De Sousa (Université Paris-Saclay); Guillaume Hollard (Institut Polytechnique de Paris (IP Paris))
    Abstract: Women are under-represented in top positions, such as Business, Politics and Science. The same under-representation occurs in chess, providing us with a unique opportunity to analyze this phenomenon. We find a macro gender gap in every country: there are fewer female than male players, especially at the top, and women have lower average rankings. One contribution of this paper is to link the macro gender gap to micro gender differences. Comparing millions of individual games, we find that women’s scores are about 2% lower than expected when playing a man rather than a woman with identical rating, age and country. Using a simple theoretical model, we explain how a small micro gap may affect women’s long-run capital formation. A small difference in outcomes generates a small difference in effort, and thus a lower future ranking. By reducing effort and increasing the probability of quitting, both effects accumulate to discourage women from competing for top positions.
    Keywords: macro gender gap; micro gender differences; under-representation
    Date: 2021–09
  2. By: ABATEMARCO, Antonio (Department of Economics and Statistics and CELPE, University of Salerno - Italy); RUSSOLILLO, Maria (Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Salerno and Bayes Business School - City (formerly CASS), University of London - UK)
    Abstract: We investigate the dynamics of the gender gap at retirement in Italy -- by cohort and year of retirement -- for individuals retiring from 1980 to 2027 using data from SHARELIFE (Wave 7). Most importantly, we disentangle the opposite effects on the gender gap originating respectively from (i) improving labor market conditions for women from the sixties, and (ii) increasing actuarial fairness of the pension plan due to the progressive transition from a defined-benefit to a notional defined-contribution scheme. To capture the impact of these two driving forces, we implement a counterfactual analysis by which the gender gap at retirement -- in terms of gender gap in pension (GGP) and between-group inequality (GE) -- is measured both in the actual and in the virtual distribution of pension benefits, with the latter being obtained under the hypothesis of an actuarially fair pension scheme. We observe a U-shaped pattern since the actual gender gap at retirement is found to be decreasing up to 2020 but increasing after this date. Specifically, the increasing pattern for the gender gap at retirement after 2020 is shown to be driven by (i) the loss of redistributive power of the pension scheme, and (ii) women's penalization in the pro-rata mechanism due to lower contributions paid in the early working life.
    Keywords: gender gap; pension; redistribution; actuarial fairness
    JEL: H55 J16 J26
    Date: 2021–09–30
  3. By: Lordan, Grace; Pischke, Jorn-Steffen
    Abstract: Occupational segregation and pay gaps by gender remain large, while many of the constraints traditionally believed to be responsible for these gaps seem to have weakened over time. We explore the possibility that women and men have different tastes for the content of the work that they do. We relate job satisfaction and job mobility to measures that proxy for the content of the work in an occupation, which we label ‘people’, ‘brains’ and ‘brawn’. The results suggest that women value jobs high on ‘people’ content and low on ‘brawn’. Men care about job content in a similar fashion, but have much weaker preferences. High school students show similar preferences in a discrete choice experiment and indicate that they make their choices based mainly on preferences for the work itself. We argue that the more pronounced preferences of women can account for occupational sorting, which often leads them into careers with large pay penalties for interruptions due to childbearing.
    Keywords: ES/M010341/1
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–09–16

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