nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒09‒06
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Wage Inequality, Selection and the Evolution of the Gender Earnings Gap in Sweden By Ahrsjö, Ulrika; Niknami, Susan; Palme, Mårten
  2. The Gap that Survived the Transition: The Gender Wage Gap over Three Decades in Estonia By Jaanika Meriküll; Maryna Tverdostup
  3. Gender-based occupational segregation: a bit string approach By Joana Passinhas; Tanya Araújo

  1. By: Ahrsjö, Ulrika (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University); Niknami, Susan (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University); Palme, Mårten (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We estimate the change in the gender wage gap between 1968 and 2010 in Sweden accounting for (1) changes in the intensive margin of labour supply; (2) changes in the overall wage inequality; (3) changes in selection into the labor market using parametric and non-parametric selection corrections. Our results show that between 1968 and 1991, about half of the changes in the gender wage gap can be attributed to changes in the overall wage distribution. Conversely, changes in the wage distribution in 1991-2010 masks a larger closure of the gender wage gap. Our corrections for selection into the labor force suggest that uncorrected estimates miss about half of the around 20 percentage points decrease in the gender wage gap over the 1968-2010 period.
    Keywords: Gender pay gap; wage gap; gender inequality; selective samples
    JEL: J16 J22 J31 J51 J71
    Date: 2021–08–25
  2. By: Jaanika Meriküll; Maryna Tverdostup (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: This paper looks at the gender wage gap throughout the transition from communism to capitalism and throughout a time of rapid economic convergence. The case of Estonia is used, and micro data from the Labour Force Survey from 1989 to 2020 are employed. The communist regimes had highly regulated wage setting and high levels of educational attainment and labour market participation for women. Although the regime was formally egalitarian, the gender attitudes were conservative and the raw gender wage gap was as large as 41% at the end of the communist period in Estonia. The large gender wage gap under communist rule narrowed quickly during the first years of economic transition, but the further decline in the gap has been slow. The paper has two main messages. The first is that there is strong inertia in the gender wage gap persisting through the communist period and economic convergence. None of the known long-run cultural drivers of gender attitudes can explain this. The second is that the decline in the gap is related to the overall decline in wage inequality, the rise in minimum wages, and more egalitarian gender attitudes. The gender attitudes are responsible for a smaller effect than wage inequality is.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, wage distribution, decomposition, post-communist economies, wage inequality, minimum wages, gender attitudes
    JEL: J31 J71 P23
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Joana Passinhas; Tanya Araújo
    Abstract: The systematic differences of gender representation across occupations, gender-based occupational segregation, has been suggested as one of the most important determinants of the still existing gender wage gap. Despite some signs of a decreasing trend, there is evidence that occupational gendered segregation is persistent even though gender dierences in human capital variables have been disappearing. Using an agent-based model we provide a framework that introduces discriminatory behavior based on labour market theories of discrimination where workers and firms can exhibit gendered preferences. The introduction of discriminatory behavior transforms the otherwise random dynamics of occupational choice into a persistent gender-based occupational segregation consistent with empirical evidence.
    Date: 2021–08

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