nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒08‒30
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Exploring the Reasons for Labour Market Gender Inequality a Year into the Covid-19 Pandemic: Evidence from the UK Cohort Studies By Bozena Wielgoszewska; Alex Bryson; Monica Costa-Dias; Francesca Foliano; David Wilkinson
  2. Is Being Competitive Always an Advantage? Degrees of Competitiveness, Gender, and Premature Work Contract Termination By Samuel Lüthi; Stefan C. Wolter
  3. Start-ups, Gender Disparities, and the Fintech Revolution in Latin America By Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; González-Correa, Ignacio

  1. By: Bozena Wielgoszewska (University College London, England); Alex Bryson (University College London, England); Monica Costa-Dias (University of Bristol and Institute for Fiscal Studies, England); Francesca Foliano (University College London, England); David Wilkinson (University College London, England)
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has caused unexpected disruptions to Western countries which affected women more adversely than men. Previous studies suggest that these gender differences are attributable to two main causes: women being over-represented in the most affected sectors of the economy and women, especially mothers, taking a bigger share of housework and childcare responsibilities following school closures. Using the data from four British nationally representative cohort studies, we test these two propositions. Our findings confirm that the adverse labour market effects of the covid-19 pandemic were still experienced by women a year into the covid-19 pandemic and that these effects were the most severe for women who lived with a partner and children. We show that adjusting for pre-pandemic job characteristics substantially attenuates the gaps, suggesting that women were over-represented in jobs disproportionately affected by covid-19 pandemic. However, the remaining gaps are not further attenuated by adjusting for the partner’s job characteristics or the number and age of children in the household, suggesting that the adversities experienced by women were not driven by their relative labour market position, as compared to their partners. The residual gender differences observed in the rates of active, paid work and furlough for those who live with partner and children point to the importance of unobserved factors such as social norms, preferences, or discrimination. These effects may be long lasting and jeopardise women’s longer-term position through the loss of experience, leading to reinforcement of gender inequalities or even reversal of the progress towards gender equality.
    Keywords: Covid-19; Pandemic; Gender; Employment; Furlough
    JEL: J16 J22
    Date: 2021–08–01
  2. By: Samuel Lüthi; Stefan C. Wolter
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the influence of competitiveness on the stability of labour relations using the example of premature employment and training contract termination in the apprenticeship education sector. The paper extends the small but growing evidence on the external relevance of competitiveness by analysing gender differences in the correlation between competitiveness and labour market success and whether these effects depend on how the students’ propensity to compete is measured. By matching a large experimental dataset with administrative data identifying contract terminations, we find that both gender and test specification matter. While competitive men assigned to a difficult competitiveness task are less likely to drop out of the contract than non competitive men, there is no such effect observable for those assigned to the easier task. On the other hand, competitive women are more likely to drop out than non competitive women, irrespective of how competitiveness is measured.
    Keywords: competitiveness, non-cognitive skills, gender, apprenticeship
    JEL: C90 J16 J24
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; González-Correa, Ignacio
    Abstract: This chapter considers the process of entrepreneurial activity to deploy financial technologies (fintech) through mandate-specific new companies in Latin America. We deal with important historical issues such as defining the term, establishing temporal and industrial activity boundaries, positioning this particular process within other organizational forms typical of the region, the role of women and other relevant issues such as the modernization of retail payments and personal lending. A central question is whether fintech start-ups have had a 'scissor' effect in the entrepreneurial process of Latin America: at the base of the pyramid (that is, reducing frictions to support overall entrepreneurial activity, increasing financial inclusion, etc.) and near the top (by creating new business leaders). As a result, this chapter provides an initial assessment of gender disparities and barriers enabling women entrepreneurs in the fintech ecosystem.
    Keywords: fintech, gender, women, entrepreneurship, startups, Latin America
    JEL: G2 J16 M13 N26
    Date: 2021–08

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