nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒07‒26
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Different but stable - gender-specific competitive behaviour across age By Pikos, Anna Katharina; Straub, Alexander
  2. Non-Base Compensation and the Gender Pay Gap By Hirsch, Boris; Lentge, Philipp
  3. Taxes, Subsidies, and Gender Gaps in Hours and Wages By Robert Duval-Hernandez; Lei Fang; L. Rachel Ngai
  4. Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the gender gap in paid work hours in Spain? By Maite Blázquez; Ainhoa Herrarte; Ana I. Moro Egido
  5. Gender Norms and Women's Decision to Work: Evidence from Japan By Rodríguez-Planas, Núria; Tanaka, Ryuichi
  6. Gender differences in the aims and impacts of research By Zhang, Lin; Sivertsen, Gunnar; Du, Huiying; HUANG, Ying; Glänzel, Wolfgang
  7. The Importance of Capital in Closing the Entrepreneurial Gender Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Lottery Wins By Sarah Flèche; Anthony Lepinteur; Nattavudh Powdthavee

  1. By: Pikos, Anna Katharina; Straub, Alexander
    Abstract: There is mixed evidence for gender differences in competing against the opposite sex. We analyze performance data from a sport where men and women can compete directly against each other. Our unique data consists of close to 600,000 observations from around 23,500 mixed-gender ninepin bowling games in Austria and the Czech Republic. To account for possible self-selection into competition against the opposite gender, we use the opponent team's sex composition as an instrument. We and almost no gender differences in Austria. In Czechia, men perform better against women and women worse against men. This pattern is stable across age.
    Keywords: gender; gender gap in competition; sports economics
    JEL: J16 D90 Z22
    Date: 2021–04
  2. By: Hirsch, Boris (Leuphana University Lüneburg); Lentge, Philipp (Leuphana University Lüneburg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether non-base compensation contributes to the gender pay gap. In wage decompositions, we find that lower bonus payments to women explain about 10% of the gap at the mean and at different quantiles of the unconditional wage distribution whereas the lower prevalence of shift premia and overtime pay among women is unimportant. Among managers, the contribution of bonuses to the mean gap more than doubles and is steadily rising as one moves up the wage distribution. Our findings suggest that gender differences in bonuses are an important contributor to the gender pay gap, particularly in top jobs.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, bonus payments, shift premia, overtime pay, glass ceilings
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2021–07
  3. By: Robert Duval-Hernandez; Lei Fang; L. Rachel Ngai
    Abstract: Using micro data from 17 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, this paper documents a negative cross-country correlation between gender ratios in market hours and wages. We find that market hours by women and the size of the service sector that produces close substitutes to home production are important for the gender differences in market hours across countries. We quantify the role played by taxes and subsidies to family care on the two gender ratios in a multisector model with home production. Higher taxes and lower subsidies reduce the marketization of home production and therefore reduce market hours. The effect is larger for women because of their comparative advantage in producing home services and the corresponding market substitutes. The larger fall in female market hours drives up the female wage relative to the male wage, resulting in higher gender wage ratios.
    Keywords: marketization; gender hour ratios; gender wage ratios; subsidies on family care; taxes; home production
    JEL: E24 E62 J22
    Date: 2021–06–24
  4. By: Maite Blázquez (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.); Ainhoa Herrarte (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.); Ana I. Moro Egido (Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the within-household gender gap in relation to paid work hours in full-time employed heterosexual couples in Spain, one of the European countries hardest hit by the pandemic. Using the Spanish Labor Force Survey (2019-2020) and a Difference-in-Differences method, we analyze three stages of the pandemic; strict lockdown, de-escalation, and partial closures to study the short-term effects and potential medium-term effects on gender inequality in terms of paid work hours. Our results suggest that during the strict lockdown period there was a tendency to fall back on traditional family gendered patterns to manage the work-life balance, especially when young children are present in male-headed households. However, this phenomenon seems to be a short-term consequence of the pandemic. The sector of activity (essential or non-essential) has also played a key role given that during the period of partial recovery amid partial closures, the gender gap increased in maleheaded households with female partners employed in non-essential sectors.
    Keywords: Covid-19, gender gap, division of labor, hours of work.
    JEL: D13 J22 J16 J21
    Date: 2021–07–08
  5. By: Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (Queens College, CUNY); Tanaka, Ryuichi (University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: Using individual-level data from the National Family Research of Japan Survey (1999, 2004 and 2009) and exploiting variation in the share of individuals with non-traditional gender norms across birth-cohorts, survey year, education, and prefecture, we find that an increase in the share of individuals with non-traditional beliefs by one standard deviation is associated with an increase in Japanese women's decision to work by 0.016 percentage points, the equivalent of an increase of 3.4% standard deviation. Our measure of non-traditional gender norms is the share of women who disagree with the statement "men should work outside and women should look after the family". As we conduct a battery of sensitivity analyses and placebo tests, our findings suggest an impact of non- traditional norms on Japanese women's decision to work full-time.
    Keywords: gender norms, women's decision to work, culture
    JEL: J16 J22 Z13
    Date: 2021–07
  6. By: Zhang, Lin; Sivertsen, Gunnar; Du, Huiying; HUANG, Ying; Glänzel, Wolfgang
    Abstract: This study uses mixed methods – classical citation analysis, altmetric analysis, a survey with researchers as respondents, and text analysis of the abstracts of scientific articles – to investigate gender differences in the aims and impacts of research. We find that male researchers more often value and engage in research mainly aimed at scientific progress, which is more cited. Female researchers more often value and engage in research mainly aimed at contributing to societal progress, which has more abstract views (usage). The gender differences are observed among researchers who work in the same field of research and have the same age and academic position. Our findings have implications for evaluation and funding policies and practices. A critical discussion of how societal engagement versus citation impact is valued, and how funding criteria reflect gender differences, is warranted.
    Date: 2021–07–11
  7. By: Sarah Flèche (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEP - LSE - Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Anthony Lepinteur (Department of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences); Nattavudh Powdthavee (WBS - Warwick Business School - University of Warwick [Coventry], IZA - Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit - Institute of Labor Economics)
    Abstract: Would improving women's access to capital reduce the gender entrepreneurial gap? We study this issue by exploiting longitudinal data on lottery winners. Comparing between large to small winners, we find that an increase in lottery win in period t-1 significantly increases the likelihood of becoming self-employed in period t. This windfall effect is statistically the same in magnitude for men and women; the top 25% winners (an average win = £831.16) in year t-1 report a significant increase in the probability of self-employment in year t by approximately 2 percentage points, which is approximately 20-30% of the gender entrepreneurial gap. These results suggest that we can causally reduce the gender entrepreneurial gap by improving women's access to capital that might not be as readily available to the aspiring female entrepreneurs as it is to male entrepreneurs
    Keywords: gender inequality,self-employment,lottery wins,BHPS
    Date: 2021–05

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