nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒07‒12
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. What explains the gender gap in top incomes in developing countries?: Evidence from Ecuador By Nicolás Oliva; H. Xavier Jara; Pia Rattenhuber
  2. Words Matter: Gender, Jobs and Applicant Behavior By Sugat Chaturvedi; Kanika Mahajan; Zahra Siddique
  3. Occupation flexibility and the graduate gender wage gap in the UK By Benny, Liza; Bhalotra, Sonia; Fernández, Manuel
  5. For whom the bell tolls: the firm-level effects of automation on wage and gender inequality By Giacomo Domini; Marco Grazzi; Daniele Moschella; Tania Treibich
  6. Does Knowledge Empower? Education, Legal Awareness and Intimate Partner Violence By Erten, Bilge; Keskin, Pinar
  7. Sharing the Caring? The Gender Division of Care Work during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany By Jessen, Jonas; Spiess, C. Katharina; Waights, Sevrin; Wrohlich, Katharina
  8. Does market inclusion empower women? Evidence from Bangladesh By Raghunathan, Kalyani; Ramani, Gayathri; Rubin, Deborah; Pereira, Audrey; Ahmed, Akhter; Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.

  1. By: Nicolás Oliva; H. Xavier Jara; Pia Rattenhuber
    Abstract: Based on tax records data from Ecuador, we analyse gender differences in top income groups from 2008 to 2017. Ecuador represents an interesting case as it shares many trends with other countries in the region in terms of women's status in the labour market. While we observe a significant increase in the share of women at the top of the income distribution during this period, women remain underrepresented in top income groups, at 38.7 per cent in the top 10 per cent income group and 22.8 per cent in the top 0.1 per cent income group.
    Keywords: Top incomes, Gender inequality, Tax data, capital incomes, Ecuador, Administrative data
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Sugat Chaturvedi; Kanika Mahajan; Zahra Siddique
    Abstract: We examine employer preferences for hiring men vs women using 160, 000 job ads posted on an online job portal in India, linked with more than 6 million applications. We apply machine learning algorithms on text contained in job ads to predict an employer’s gender preference. We find that advertised wages are lowest in jobs where employers prefer women, even when this preference is implicitly retrieved through the text analysis, and that these jobs also attract a larger share of female applicants. We then systematically uncover what lies beneath these relationships by retrieving words that are predictive of an explicit gender preference, or gendered words, and assigning them to the categories of hard and soft-skills, personality traits, and flexibility. We find that skills related female-gendered words have low returns but attract a higher share of female applicants while male-gendered words indicating decreased flexibility (e.g., frequent travel or unusual working hours) have high returns but result in a smaller share of female applicants. This contributes to a gender earnings gap. Our findings illustrate how gender preferences are partly driven by stereotypes and statistical discrimination.
    Date: 2021–06–22
  3. By: Benny, Liza; Bhalotra, Sonia; Fernández, Manuel
    Abstract: This paper examines the importance of gender differences in labour supply and demand for job flexibility to the growth of the gender wage gap over the life cycle and over time for graduates in the UK. We document that the graduate gender wage gap increases over the life cycle, especially between ages 25 and 40, to about 20% of real hourly male earnings by age 55. The share of women working in flexible occupations has grown over the life cycle, and especially substantially over time for successive cohorts, whereas men are less likely to work in flexible occupations at older ages. The wage penalty from working in flexible occupations increases both over the life cycle and over time. We estimate a model of labour supply and demand to quantify the importance of changes to preferences and relative demand for flexibility on the gender wage gap. Higher relative demand for male labour at older ages, and in in flexible occupations, explains almost all (96%) of the estimated life cycle increases in the gender wage gap, whereas women's higher preferences for working in flexible occupations drives the increases in sorting into flexible occupations over time, contributing to about 60% of the estimated increase in the gender wage gap over time.
    Date: 2021–07–01
  4. By: Ilona Pavlenkova; Luca Alfieri; Jaan Masso
    Abstract: This paper investigates how investments in automation-intensive goods affects the gender pay gap. The evidence on the effects of automation on the labour market is growing; however, little is known about the implications of automation for the gender pay gap. The data used in the paper are from a matched employer-employee dataset incorporating detailed information on firms, their imports, and employee-level data for Estonian manufacturing and services employers for 2006–2018. We define automation using the imports of intermediates embedding automation technologies. The effect of automation is estimated using simple Mincerian wage equations and the causality of the effect is validated using propensity score matching. We find that introducing automation enlarges the gender pay gap. The negative effect of importing automation-intensive goods for female employees is about two to four percentage points larger than for male employees. The propensity score matching confirms that the introduction of automation has a higher causal effect on the wages of male employees than female employees.
    Keywords: Automation, Technological change, Robotization, Gender pay gap
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Giacomo Domini; Marco Grazzi; Daniele Moschella; Tania Treibich
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of investment in automation- and AI- related goods on within-firm wage inequality in the French economy during the period 2002-2017. We document that most of wage inequality in France is accounted for by differences among workers belonging to the same firm, rather than by differences between sectors, firms, and occupations. Using an event-study approach on a sample of firms importing automation and AI-related goods, we find that spike events related to the adoption of automation- or AI-related capital goods are not followed by an increase in within-firm wage nor in gender inequality. Instead, wages increase by 1% three years after the events at different percentiles of the distribution. Our findings are not linked to a rent-sharing behavior of firms obtaining productivity gains from automation or AI adoption. Instead, if the wage gains do not differ across workers along the wage distribution, worker heterogeneity is still present. Indeed, aligned with the framework in Abowd et al. (1999b), most of the overall wage increase is due to the hiring of new employees. This adds to previous findings showing picture of a 'labor friendly' effect of the latest wave of new technologies within adopting firms.
    Keywords: Automation; AI; wage inequality; gender pay gap.
    Date: 2021–07–05
  6. By: Erten, Bilge (Northeastern University); Keskin, Pinar (Wellesley College)
    Abstract: This paper uses an extension of compulsory schooling in Turkey to estimate the causal effects of education onwomen's legal awareness of laws thatwere designed to reduce gender inequality and prevent domestic violence. By implementing a regressiondiscontinuity design, we find that the reform-induced increase in female education improved legal awareness. Women exposed to the reform were more likely to have heard about the new laws and services through newspapers, journals, or books. However, despite these improvements in women's legal awareness, we find no evidence of a significant change in the risk of experiencing domestic violence or ability to quit abusive relationships.
    Keywords: legal knowledge, information acquisition, education, domestic violence, regression discontinuity
    JEL: J12 J16 I25
    Date: 2021–06
  7. By: Jessen, Jonas (DIW Berlin); Spiess, C. Katharina (DIW Berlin); Waights, Sevrin (DIW Berlin); Wrohlich, Katharina (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and related closures of daycare centers and schools significantly increased the amount of care work done by parents. There is much speculation over whether the pandemic increased or decreased gender equality in parental care work. Based on representative data for Germany we present an empirical analysis that shows greater support for the latter rather than the former hypothesis. A key finding is that there is a significant increase in the number of couples where the mother is left completely or almost completely alone with the care work. We see only small increases in the prevalence of fathers doing more than mothers or in splitting these tasks 50:50. Additionally we find that the increase in mothers solely responsible for care work is greatest when the mother alone works from home. The division of care work is perceived very differently by mothers and fathers, a difference that also increased during the pandemic.
    Keywords: gender division, domestic work, child care, day care, COVID-19
    JEL: D13 J16 J22
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: Raghunathan, Kalyani; Ramani, Gayathri; Rubin, Deborah; Pereira, Audrey; Ahmed, Akhter; Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: Increased market inclusion through participation in agricultural value chains may increase employment and household incomes, but evidence on its empowerment impacts is mixed. In societies with restrictive social norms, greater market inclusion can enhance existing income and empowerment inequalities by relegating marginalized groups, including women, to low value chains or lower value nodes within those chains. We use primary data from rural Bangladesh to investigate the associations between households’ primary economic activity – agricultural wage-earning, production, or entrepreneurship – and absolute and relative levels of men’s and women’s empowerment. Women in producer households, on average, fare better on empowerment outcomes than women in wage-earner or entrepreneur households; the opposite is true for men. The gap between men’s and women’s empowerment scores is also lowest in producer households. A decomposition of these results into composite indicators yields insights into potential trade-offs, while accompanying qualitative work highlights the importance of social and cultural norms in shaping the economic roles women can adopt. With a push towards diversification of agriculture into higher value market-oriented crops, more careful programming is needed to ensure that market inclusion translates into an increase in women’s empowerment.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; agriculture; livelihoods; mixed model method; value chains; rural areas; households; market inclusion
    Date: 2021

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