nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒06‒28
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Do Women Give Up Competing More Easily? Evidence from Speedcubers By Fang, Chao; Zhang, Ernest; Zhang, Junfu
  2. The Gender Pay Gap in Ireland from Austerity through Recovery By Doorley, Karina; Privalko, Ivan; Russell, Helen; Tuda, Dora
  3. Peer Gender and Schooling: Evidence from Ethiopia By Borbely, Daniel; Norris, Jonathan; Romiti, Agnese
  4. Gender Differences in Peer Recognition by Economists By David Card; Stefano DellaVigna; Patricia Funk; Nagore Iriberri
  5. Gender and Choices in Higher Education By Anne Boring; Jennifer Brown

  1. By: Fang, Chao (Clark University); Zhang, Ernest (Hopkinton High School); Zhang, Junfu (Clark University)
    Abstract: We analyze a large sample of participants in mixed-gender Rubik's Cube competitions. Focusing on participants who barely made or missed the cut for the second round in a competition, we examine their likelihood of joining another competition in the future. We find a significant gender difference: Whereas boys are slightly discouraged by failing to qualify for the second round, girls are affected more and are more likely to give up forever. Furthermore, we find that this gender difference is most significant in countries with larger gender gaps in labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: gender gap, competition, Rubik's Cube
    JEL: D91 J16 L83
    Date: 2021–06
  2. By: Doorley, Karina (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); Privalko, Ivan (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); Russell, Helen (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); Tuda, Dora (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the raw and adjusted gender pay gap in Ireland between 2011 and 2018, a period of austerity measures and recovery from the Great Recession. Using survey data sources linked to administrative information on earnings, we show that the raw gender wage gap across the wage distribution has not changed much over this period: it is larger for higher earners and is mainly concentrated in the private sector. Using a Distribution Regression method, we estimate the relative contributions of explained and unexplained components to the overall gender wage gap at each point at the wage distribution and summarise the findings by wage quantile. The explained gender wage gap is negative, indicating that women have better labour market characteristics than men, on average. The unexplained gender wage gap is positive and increases with the wage level. This results in a small or zero gender wage gap at the bottom of the wage distribution which rises to 10% at the top of the wage distribution. The stability of the gender pay gap across the wage distribution in the private sector over the period suggest the strong structural inequalities, that are unlikely to change without significant interventions
    Keywords: gender pay gap, occupational segregation, discrimination, Ireland
    JEL: J31 J71 D31
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: Borbely, Daniel (University of Dundee); Norris, Jonathan (University of Strathclyde); Romiti, Agnese (University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study how classmate gender composition matters for students in Ethiopia. We base our results on a unique survey of students across classrooms and schools and among those randomly assigned to class. We find a strong asymmetry: males do not and females do benefit from exposure to more female classmates with less school absence and improvement on math test scores. We further find that exposure to more female classmates improves motivation and participation in class, and in general, that the effects of classmate gender composition are consistent with social interaction effects.
    Keywords: peer effects, gender, school performance, Ethiopia
    JEL: I21 I29 J16 J24
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: David Card; Stefano DellaVigna; Patricia Funk; Nagore Iriberri
    Abstract: We study the selection of Fellows of the Econometric Society, using a new data set of publications and citations for over 40,000 actively publishing economists since the early 1900s. Conditional on achievement, we document a large negative gap in the probability that women were selected as Fellows in the 1933-1979 period. This gap became positive (though not statistically significant) from 1980 to 2010, and in the past decade has become large and highly significant, with over a 100% increase in the probability of selection for female authors relative to males with similar publications and citations. The positive boost affects highly qualified female candidates (in the top 10% of authors) with no effect for the bottom 90%. Using nomination data for the past 30 years, we find a key proximate role for the Society's Nominating Committee in this shift. Since 2012 the Committee has had an explicit mandate to nominate highly qualified women, and its nominees enjoy above-average election success (controlling for achievement). Looking beyond gender, we document similar shifts in the premium for geographic diversity: in the mid-2000s, both the Fellows and the Nominating Committee became significantly more likely to nominate and elect candidates from outside the US. Finally, we examine gender gaps in several other major awards for US economists. We show that the gaps in the probability of selection of new fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences closely parallel those of the Econometric Society, with historically negative penalties for women turning to positive premiums in recent years.
    JEL: J16
    Date: 2021–06
  5. By: Anne Boring (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Jennifer Brown (University of Utah (UUtah))
    Abstract: Data on the labor market outcomes of university graduates show that gender pay gaps appear soon after graduation in nearly every field of study. We provide descriptive evidence of a plausible cause of the gender starting-salary gap: choices within an educational setting that differ between male and female students, even after accounting for academic specialization. We examine the choices of undergraduate students at a selective French university who are competing for seats at foreign universities to fulfill a mandatory exchange program requirement. Holding fixed students’ field of study, we find that average and high-ability female students request exchange universities that are worse-ranked than their male peers. A survey eliciting students’ preferences suggests that male students prioritize the academic characteristics of potential exchange universities more often, whereas similar female students consider both the academic and non-academic characteristics of exchange destinations. We explore the short-term consequences of these differing preferences using a simulation that assigns students to exchange seats solely on university ranking and students’ academic performance. Female students’ assignment improves almost uniformly, whereas top-performing male students face increased competition for seats and male students with average grades face less competition as high-achieving female students shift towards better-ranked assignments.
    Keywords: gender gaps ; choices; higher education
    Date: 2021–06

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