nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒06‒14
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Wage and Employment Discrimination by Gender in Labor Market Equilibrium By Xiao, Pengpeng
  2. The Impact of Selection into the Labor Force on the Gender Wage Gap By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Nikolai Boboshko; Matthew Comey
  3. Did COVID-19 affect the division of labor within the household? Evidence from two waves of the pandemic in Italy By Daniela Del Boca; Noemi Oggero; Paola Profeta; Maria Cristina Rossi
  4. Cracking under Pressure? Gender Role Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Times of a Pandemic By Natalia Danzer; Mathias Huebener; Astrid Pape; C. Katharina Spieß; Nico A. Siegel; Gert G. Wagner
  5. Innovative ideas and gender inequality By Koffi, Marlene
  6. Female and male entrepreneurs in Germany: How did the coronavirus pandemic affect their businesses? By Kay, Rosemarie; Welter, Friederike

  1. By: Xiao, Pengpeng
    Abstract: This paper develops an equilibrium search model to study the mechanisms underlying the lifecycle gender wage gap: human capital accumulation, preference for job amenities, and employers’ statistical discrimination in wage offers and hiring. In the model, men and women differ in turnover behaviors, parental leave lengths, and preference for amenities before and after having children. Capacity-constrained firms anticipate these gender differences when setting wages and making match decisions. Estimating the model on administrative employer-employee data combined with occupational level survey data on amenities from Finland, I find that a large proportion (44%) of the gender wage gap in early career is attributed to employers’ statistical discrimination based on fertility concerns, whereas gender differences in labor force attachment explain the majority of the gap (70%) in late career. Both hiring discrimination and preference for amenities draw women to low-productivity jobs in early career, and slow down their career progression in the long run. Counterfactual simulations show that shifting two parental leave months from women to men shrinks the wage gap by 13%. A gender quota at top jobs improves women’s representation in highproductivity positions, but firms undo this policy by exerting more wage discrimination. An equal pay policy counterfactual shows that requiring firms to pay men and women the same wage closes the wage gap by 15% on average, but has unintended consequences as employers adjust on the hiring margin.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap, statistical discrimination, human capital, job search, child penalty, non-wage amenities, Labour markets and education, J16, J24, J32, J64,
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Nikolai Boboshko; Matthew Comey
    Abstract: We study the impact of selection bias on estimates of the gender pay gap, focusing on whether the gender pay gap has fallen since 1981. Previous research has found divergent results across techniques, identification strategies, data sets, and time periods. Using Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics data and a number of different identification strategies, we find robust evidence that, after controlling for selection, there were large declines in the raw and the unexplained gender wage gaps over the 1981-2015 period. Under our preferred method of accounting for selection, we find that the raw median wage gap declined by 0.378 log points, while the median unexplained gap declined by a more modest but still substantial 0.204 log points. These declines are larger than estimates that do not account for selection. Our results suggest that women’s relative wage offers have increased over this period, even after controlling for their measured covariates, including education and actual labor market experience. However, we note that substantial gender wage gaps remain. In 2015, at the median, the selectivity-corrected gaps were 0.242 log points (raw gap) and 0.206 log points (unexplained gap).
    Keywords: Gender pay gap, selection into employment, labour market development, unexplained gap, PSID
    JEL: C21 C24 J16 J21 J30 J31 J71
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Daniela Del Boca; Noemi Oggero; Paola Profeta; Maria Cristina Rossi
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on families’ lives, with parents all over the world struggling to meet the increased demands of housework, childcare and home-schooling. Much of the additional burden has been shouldered by women, particularly in countries with a traditionally uneven division of household labor. Yet the dramatic increase in remote work from home since the pandemic also has the potential to increase paternal involvement in family life and thus to redress persistent domestic gender role inequalities. This effect depends on the working arrangements of each partner, whether working remotely, working at their usual workplace or ceasing work altogether. We examine the role of working arrangements during the pandemic on the traditional division of household labor in Italy using survey data from interviews with a representative sample of working women conducted during the two waves of COVID-19 (April and November 2020). Our data show that the gender gap in household care related activities was widest during the first wave of the pandemic, and although it was less pronounced during the second wave, it was still higher than pre-COVID-19. The time spent by women on housework, childcare, and assisting their children with distance learning did not depend on their partners’ working arrangements. Conversely, men spent fewer hours helping with the housework and distance learning when their partners were at home. It is interesting, however, that although men who worked remotely or not at all did devote more time to domestic chores and child care, the increased time they spent at home did not seem to lead to a reallocation of couples’ roles in housework and child care. Finally, we find that working arrangements are linked to women’s feelings of uncertainty, with heterogeneous effects by level of education.
    Keywords: COVID-19, work arrangements, housework, childcare, distance learning.
    JEL: J13 J16 J21
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Natalia Danzer; Mathias Huebener; Astrid Pape; C. Katharina Spieß; Nico A. Siegel; Gert G. Wagner
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of Covid-19 related daycare and school closures on gender role attitudes toward maternal employment in Germany. We compare women and men with dependent children to those without children one year after the outbreak of the pandemic. Using data on gender role attitudes from 2008 through 2021, we find that fathers’ egalitarian attitudes toward maternal employment dropped substantially in 2021. This drop is observed for men in West Germany, who showed a steady progression toward more egalitarian attitudes in the pre-pandemic period. Attitudes by women are not affected. These findings suggest that the pandemic not only affected the short-term allocation of housework and childcare, but also reversed recent trends toward more egalitarian gender roles.
    Keywords: Covid-19, gender role attitudes, childcare, difference-in-difference, ALLBUS, COMPASS
    JEL: J13 J16 J18 J22
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Koffi, Marlene
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the recognition of women's innovative ideas. Bibliometric data from research in economics are used to investigate gender biases in citation patterns. Based on deep learning and machine learning techniques, one can (1) establish the similarities between papers (2) build a link between articles by identifying the papers citing, cited and that should be cited. This study finds that, on average, omitted papers are 15%-20% more likely to be female-authored than male-authored. This omission bias is more prevalent when there are only males in the citing paper. Overall, to have the same level of citation as papers written by males, papers written by females need to be 20 percentiles upper in the distribution of the degree of innovativeness of the paper.
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Kay, Rosemarie; Welter, Friederike
    Abstract: Restrictions in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic have affected and continue to affect the operations of entrepreneurs. A wide range of support measures were designed to mitigate their consequences. This paper traces the economic development in the various sectors and provides an overview of the support measures. Based on the specifics of women's businesses, first answers will be given to the question whether women entrepreneurs and the businesses they run are particularly affected by the coronavirus crisis and whether they are supported in an appropriate way in overcoming the crisis.
    Keywords: entrepreneurs,gender,coronavirus pandemic,turnover development,support measures
    JEL: E60 J16 O10
    Date: 2021

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