nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒05‒31
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Gap in Income and the COVID-19 Pandemic By Doorley, Karina; O'Donoghue, Cathal; Sologon, Denisa Maria
  2. Gender Differences in Student Evaluations of Teaching: Identification and Consequences By Cannon, Edmund; Cipriani, Giam Pietro
  3. Gender Differences in Access to Health Care Among the Elderly: Evidence from Southeast Asia By van der Meulen Rodgers , Yana; Zveglich, Jr. , Joseph E.
  4. Gender Differences in Job Search and the Earnings Gap: Evidence from Business Majors By Cortes, Patricia; Pan, Jessica; Pilossoph, Laura; Zafar, Basit
  5. Gender wage and longevity gaps and the design of retirement systems By Barigozzi, Francesca; Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie
  6. Signals from on High and the Power of "Growth Mindset": A Natural Field Experiment in Workplace Diversity By Flory, Jeffrey A.; Leibbrandt, Andreas; Rott, Christina; Stoddard, Olga B.

  1. By: Doorley, Karina (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); O'Donoghue, Cathal (National University of Ireland, Galway); Sologon, Denisa Maria (LISER (CEPS/INSTEAD))
    Abstract: The gender income gap is large and well documented for many countries. Recent research shows that it is mainly driven by differences in working patterns between men and women, but also by wage differences. The tax-benefit system cushions the gender income gap by redistributing between men and women. The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented levels of unemployment in 2020 in many countries, with some suggestion that men and women have been differently affected. This research investigates the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on the gender gap in income in Ireland. Using nowcasting techniques and microsimulation, we model the effect of pandemic induced employment and wage changes on market and disposable income. We show how the pandemic and the associated tax-benefit support can be expected to change the income gap between men and women. Policy conclusions are drawn about future redistribution between men and women.
    Keywords: gender inequality, Ireland, tax-benefit system, COVID-19
    JEL: D31 H23 J16 J31
    Date: 2021–05
  2. By: Cannon, Edmund (University of Bristol); Cipriani, Giam Pietro (University of Verona)
    Abstract: Student Evaluations of Teaching (SETs) have been suggested as one possible cause for low representation of women among academic economists. While econometric analyses using control variables certainly report that SETs can be influenced by the gender of both teacher and student, such studies may still be biased if there is non-random allocation of teachers to teaching. Even if causal estimates of gender effects are unbiased, the inference that SETs contribute to gender discrimination is hazardous, since hiring or promotion committees would not have access to these controls when evaluating SETs. We use data from an Italian university to quantify the effect of controls on gender effects and conclude that there is insufficient evidence to blame SETs for a gender imbalance in Economics.
    Keywords: students' evaluation of teaching, gender bias, matching, teaching allocation, hiring and promotion
    JEL: A22 I21 J16
    Date: 2021–05
  3. By: van der Meulen Rodgers , Yana (Rutgers University); Zveglich, Jr. , Joseph E. (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Populations become increasingly feminized with age. Since older women are more vulnerable to poverty, they may find it more difficult than men to access health care. This study examines factors that may constrain older persons in Southeast Asia from meeting their health-care needs when sick. Our analysis of household survey data from Cambodia, the Philippines, and Viet Nam shows that women are more likely to have reported sickness or injury than men, a difference that is meaningful and statistically significant. While women in Cambodia and the Philippines are more likely to seek treatment than men, the gender difference is reversed in Viet Nam where stigma and discrimination associated with some diseases may more strongly deter women. The probability of seeking treatment rises with age more sharply for women than men in all countries. However, for the subsample of elders, the gender difference is not significant.
    Keywords: elderly; gender; health; health care; women
    JEL: I14 J16 O53
    Date: 2021–02–12
  4. By: Cortes, Patricia (Boston University); Pan, Jessica (National University of Singapore); Pilossoph, Laura (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Zafar, Basit (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: To understand gender differences in the job search process, we collect rich information on job offers and acceptances from past and current undergraduates of Boston University's Questrom School of Business. We document two novel empirical facts: (1) there is a clear gender difference in the timing of job offer acceptance, with women accepting jobs substantially earlier than men, and (2) the gender earnings gap in accepted offers narrows in favor of women over the course of the job search period. Using survey data on risk preferences and beliefs about expected future earnings, we present empirical evidence that the patterns in job search can be partly explained by the higher levels of risk aversion displayed by women and the higher levels of overoptimism (and slower belief updating) displayed by men. We develop a job search model that incorporates these gender differences in risk aversion and (over)optimism about prospective offers. Our counterfactual exercises show that simple policies such as eliminating "exploding offers" by allowing students to hold onto offers for an additional month, or providing them with accurate information about the labor market, can reduce the gender gap significantly.
    Keywords: gender, job search behavior, risk aversion, overconfidence
    JEL: D83 D91 J64
    Date: 2021–05
  5. By: Barigozzi, Francesca; Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie
    Abstract: We study the design of pension benets for male and female workers. Women live longer than men but have a lower wage. Individuals can be single or live in couples who pool their incomes. Social welfare is utilitarian but an increasing concave transforma- tion of individualslifetime utilities introduces the concern for redistribution between individuals with di¤erent life-spans. We derive the optimal direction of redistribution and show how it is a¤ected by a gender neutrality rule. With singles only, a simple utilitarian solution implies re- distribution from males to females. When the transformation is su¢ ciently concave redistribution may or may not be reversed. With couples only, the ranking of gender retirement ages is always reversed when the transformation is su¢ ciently concave. Under gender neutrality pension schemes must be self-selecting. With singles only this implies distortions of retirement decision and restricts redistribution across genders. With couples, a rst best that implies a lower retirement age for females can be im- plemented by a gender-neutral system. Otherwise, gender neutrality implies equal re- tirement ages and restricts the possibility to compensate the shorter-lived individuals. Calibrated simulations show that when singles and couples coexist, gender neutrality substantially limits redistribution in favor of single women and fully prevents redistri- bution in favor of male spouses.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap; gender gap in longevity; retirement systems
    JEL: H55 H31 H21
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Flory, Jeffrey A. (Claremont McKenna College); Leibbrandt, Andreas (Monash University); Rott, Christina (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Stoddard, Olga B. (Brigham Young University)
    Abstract: We conduct a large-scale natural field experiment with a Fortune 500 company to test several approaches to attract minorities to high-profile positions. 5,000 prospective applicants were randomized into treatments varying a portion of recruiting materials. We find that self-selection at two early-career stages exhibits a substantial race gap. Importantly, we show that this gap can be strongly influenced by several treatments, with some increasing application rates by minorities by 40 percent and others being particularly effective for minority women. The heterogeneities we find by gender, race, and career stage shed light on the underlying drivers of self-selection barriers among minorities.
    Keywords: diversity, race, gender, labor, experiment, field experiment
    JEL: J15 J16 C93 D22
    Date: 2021–05

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