nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒05‒24
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Women's Representation in Politics and Government Stability By Antonio Acconcia; Carla Ronza
  2. Gender Gaps in Political Careers: Evidence from Competitive Elections By Davide Cipullo
  3. Neither Backlash nor Convergence: Dynamics of Intracouple Childcare Division after the First Covid-19 Lockdown and Subsequent Reopening in Germany By Christina Boll; Dana Müller; Simone Schüller
  4. The China trade shock and the gender wage gap in India: A District-level analysis By Kajari Saha
  5. Fragile Boys (and Girls)? Determinants and Long-Term Consequences of Socioemotional Development By Ghazala Azmat; Katja Maria Kaufmann; Yasemin Özdemir
  6. Gender Differences in Persistence in a Field of Study By Michael Kaganovich; Morgan Taylor; Ruli Xiao
  7. Does gender moderate the influence of emotions on risk-taking? Preliminary meta-analytic evidence from multiple price lists By Matteo M. Marini

  1. By: Antonio Acconcia (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Carla Ronza (Università di Napoli Federico II)
    Abstract: Evidence from Italian municipalities indicates that government stability enhances when the share of female councillors increases while it weakens when that share is reduced. Results related to the 2012 gender quota imply that a higher share by 10 percentage points decreases the probability of early termination by 3 percentage points. This effect holds true even controlling for education levels of councillors, party concentration within the council, sex of the Mayor, and unobserved municipal characteristics; it becomes stronger when the municipality is headed by a female Mayor. Results obtained by exploiting the abolition of the 1993 gender quota confirm the relationship between government stability and females' representation. Taken together, our evidence suggests more willingness of females to settle disagreements and foster cooperation.
    Keywords: Government Stability, Women in Politics, Cooperation, Gender Quotas.
    JEL: D74 J16 D72
    Date: 2021–05–11
  2. By: Davide Cipullo
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of voter support on the representation of women in the political profession. The empirical analysis exploits two-stage elections in the United States and Italy to hold the selection of candidates constant. In two-stage elections, candidates are admitted to the second round of voting based on the outcome of the first round. I find that among candidates who marginally qualify for the final round, women are 20 percent less likely than men to be elected to the US House of Representatives and 40 percent less likely to be elected mayor in Italian municipalities. Using a difference-in-discontinuities design, I then show that the gender gap in the probability of being elected has long-lasting effects on career trajectories. Women are substantially less likely than men to win future elections and to climb the political hierarchy. My findings suggest that one of the reasons that few women reach the top in politics is that female candidates face hurdles at the beginning of their careers.
    Keywords: gender gaps, self-selection, political careers, voting
    JEL: C24 D02 D72 J16
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Christina Boll; Dana Müller; Simone Schüller
    Abstract: Using unique monthly panel data from the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) covering the immediate postlockdown period from June to August 2020, we investigate the opposing claims of widening/closing the gender gap in parental childcare during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. We contribute to the current literature by analyzing the medium-term dynamics of couples’ childcare division and by considering the prepandemic division rather than providing merely snapshots during lockdown. Our results suggest a slight shift toward a more egalitarian division in June that, however, faded out in subsequent months. Starting from a fairly “traditional” prepandemic childcare division, the lockdown stimulus was not nearly strong enough to level the playing field. A subgroup analysis differentiating between parents’ individual lockdown-specific work arrangements shows that the drivers of the observed shift were mothers who worked more than 20 hours a week and for whom remote work was not possible. Fathers’ work arrangement instead did not play a significant role. We conclude that the shift emerged out of necessity rather than opportunity, which makes it likely to fade once the necessity vanishes, thereby catapulting parents back to their initial childcare arrangements.
    Keywords: Covid-19, intracouple division of unpaid work, childcare, gender, working from home, IAB-HOPP
    JEL: D13 J13 J16
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Kajari Saha (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: This study provides new evidence on the debate surrounding international trade and the gender wage gap in a developing country context. It asks whether increased competition from trade has any causal effect on the district-level gender wage gap in India. Changes in competition from trade are measured using changes in imports from China, owing to the dramatic rise in Chinese imports into India in recent years. An instrumental variable (IV) based estimation strategy is used following Autor, Dorn, and anson (2016), to delineate causality. Results indicate a positive and statistically significant impact of an increase in Chinese imports on the gender wage gap over time. In addition to the economy-wide ample of workers, this effect holds true for the sub-samples of casual laborers and rural sector workers where the majority of women workers in India are concentrated. Unlike previous studies using industry-level data, the district-level focus of this study allows us to capture micro-level effects, as well as the net effects of trade in the surrounding district.
    Keywords: International trade, Gender wage gap, Competition, Imports, China, District
    JEL: F16 D63 J16 J31
    Date: 2021–04
  5. By: Ghazala Azmat; Katja Maria Kaufmann; Yasemin Özdemir
    Abstract: We analyze the determinants and consequences of socioemotional development (SED) during adolescence. We causally estimate the impact of a large macro shock, the German Reunification, on the SED of East German youths, finding substantial negative effects in the short run. These effects are similar for male and female youths. However, linking changes in SED to behavior, we see stark differences by gender -observing important changes in externalizing behavior and behavioral control problems among males and changes in internalizing behavior among females only. Ultimately, however, the effects on longer-run outcomes (subjective health, wellbeing, education) are grave and similar for both genders.
    Keywords: socioemotional development, gender, uncertainty, behavior, health, educational outcomes
    JEL: D91 J13 J16 J24 I12
    Date: 2021–05
  6. By: Michael Kaganovich; Morgan Taylor; Ruli Xiao
    Abstract: Weaker retention of women in quantitatively oriented fields, particularly STEM* is widely seen in US higher education. This persistence gap is often explained by less generous grading in these fields and the conjectured tendency of female students to generally exhibit stronger “sensitivity” to grades. We examine student persistence in a wide spectrum of academic fields using a rich Indiana University Learning Analytics dataset. We find that the phenomenon of women’s relatively lower persistence in STEM in response to lower grades does not universally extend to other disciplines. Further, a stronger response, in terms of attrition, to grades received is not a gender-specific characteristic but more likely to reflect gender differences in the underlying field preferences. In other words, it is a weaker preference for a field of study that is likely to make students more responsive to grades received in it, rather than the other way around as is commonly suggested.
    Keywords: college major choice, persistence, sensitivity to grades
    JEL: I23 I24 J24 D21
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Matteo M. Marini (Department of Economics and Management, University of Florence, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper is a follow-up investigation to the aggregate data meta-analysis by Marini (2021), the latter study being designed to detect what experimental protocols moderate the effect of emotions on risk-taking. Our work purports to check the robustness of Marini (2021)’s findings when gender is taken into account as a moderator. The goal is pursued by pooling individual participant data from the subset of studies that make use of multiple price lists as risk elicitation method. We find preliminary support for the results of the benchmark metaanalysis to the extent that sadness promotes risk aversion and subjects take greater risks when studies are conducted in individualist countries. Gender does not moderate the influence of emotions on risk propensity, whereas safe choices become more popular as the magnitude of financial rewards increases.
    Keywords: : meta-analysis, gender differences, emotion, risk-taking, multiple price list
    JEL: C91 D81 D91 J16
    Date: 2021

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