nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒05‒10
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Sticky floors or glass ceilings? The role of human capital, working time flexibility and discrimination in the gender wage gap By Gabriele Ciminelli; Cyrille Schwellnus; Balazs Stadler
  2. Assessing gender gaps in employment and earnings in Africa: the case of Eswatini By Brixiová Schwidrowski, Zuzana; Imai, Susumu; Kangoye, Thierry; Yameogo, Nadege Desiree
  3. Export, Female Comparative Advantage and the Gender Wage Gap By Bonfiglioli, Alessandra; De Pace, Federica
  4. The Impact of Past Pandemics on Economic and Gender Inequalities By Brzezinski, Michal
  5. Women in Academic Economics: Have We Made Progress? By Donna K. Ginther; Shulamit Kahn
  6. Experimental evidence on gender bias in an occupational choice: the role of parents By Smyk Magdalena
  7. The Gendered Impact of the COVID-19 Recession on the US Labor Market By Albanesi, Stefania; Kim, Jiyeon
  8. The Impact of the Female Advantage in Education on the Marriage Market By Rodríguez-González, Ana

  1. By: Gabriele Ciminelli; Cyrille Schwellnus; Balazs Stadler
    Abstract: Despite changes in social norms and policies, on average across 25 European countries, there remains a gap of around 15% in hourly earnings between similarly-qualified men and women. This raises inequality and limits growth by preventing women from reaching their full labour market potential. Using individual-level data, this paper quantifies the main drivers of gender wage gaps with a view to devising effective policies to reduce them. The findings suggest that, on average, “sticky floors” related to social norms, gender stereotyping and discrimination account for 40% of the gender wage gap, while the “glass ceiling” related to the motherhood penalty accounts for around 60%. The importance of the “glass ceiling” is especially large in most Northern and Western European countries, while “sticky floors” explain the major part of the gap in most Central and Eastern European countries. These results imply that most Northern and Western European countries need to prioritise policies to address the motherhood penalty, such as further promoting flexitime and telework and supporting early childcare. Most Central and Eastern European as well as Southern European countries, where “sticky floors” are more important, additionally need to prioritise equal pay and pay transparency laws, measures to address gender stereotyping, competition in product markets, as well as higher wage floors where they are currently low.
    Keywords: discrimination, gender wage gap, motherhood penalty
    JEL: J16 J24 J78
    Date: 2021–05–07
  2. By: Brixiová Schwidrowski, Zuzana; Imai, Susumu; Kangoye, Thierry; Yameogo, Nadege Desiree
    Abstract: Persistent gender gaps characterize labor markets in many African countries. Utilizing Eswatini's first three labor market surveys (conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2013), this paper provides first systematic evidence on the country's gender gaps in employment and earnings. We find that women have notably lower employment rates and earnings than men, even though the global financial crisis had a less negative impact on women than it had on men. Both unadjusted and unexplained gender earnings gaps are higher in self-employment than in wage employment. Tertiary education and urban location account for a large part of the gender earnings gap and mitigate high female propensity to self-employment. Our findings suggest that policies supporting female higher education and rural-urban mobility could reduce persistent inequalities in Eswatini's labor market outcomes as well as in other middle-income countries in southern Africa.
    Keywords: gender,employment,income,multivariate analysis,policies
    JEL: J16 J21 L26 O12
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Bonfiglioli, Alessandra; De Pace, Federica
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of firms' export activity on the gender wage gap among its workers. Using matched employer-employee data from Germany for the period between 1993 and 2007, we show that an increase in a firm's export widens the wage gap between male and female blue-collar workers, while it reduces it between male and female white collars. In particular, the former effect is stronger for workers in routine manual tasks, while the latter is driven by employees performing interactive tasks. This evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that serving foreign markets relies more on interpersonal skills, which reinforces female comparative advantage and reduces (widens) the gender wage gap in white-collar (blue-collar) occupations. Our results, identified out of the variation in wages within firm-worker pairs, are robust to controlling for a series of worker and firm characteristics, and a host of firm, sector, time and state fixed effects, and heterogeneous trends.
    Keywords: comparative advantage; Employer-employee data; gender wage gap; Trade
    JEL: F16 J16 J31
    Date: 2021–02
  4. By: Brzezinski, Michal
    Abstract: This paper estimates how previous major pandemic events affected economic and gender inequalities in the short- to medium run. We consider the impact of six major pandemic episodes – H3N2 Flu (1968), SARS (2003), H1N1 Swine Flu (2009), MERS (2012), Ebola (2014), and Zika (2016) – on cross-country inequalities in a sample of up to 180 countries observed over 1950-2019. Results show that the past pandemics have moderately increased income inequality in the affected countries in the period of four to five years after the pandemic’s start. On the other hand, we do not find any robust negative impacts on wealth inequality. The results concerning gender inequality are less consistent, but we find some evidence of declining gender equality among the hardest hit countries, as well as of growing gender gaps in unemployment within the four years after the onset of the pandemic.
    Date: 2021–04–28
  5. By: Donna K. Ginther; Shulamit Kahn
    Abstract: This study uses data from Academic Analytics to examine gender differences in promotion to associate professor in economics. We found that women in economics were 15% less likely to be promoted to associate professor after controlling for cumulative publications, citations, grants and grant dollars. In contrast, we found no significant gender differences in promotion in other fields including biomedical science, physical science, political science, mathematics and statistics, and engineering. We separated the sample by the research intensity of institutions and found suggestive evidence that these results were being driven by less research-intensive institutions.
    JEL: A11 J16 J40
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Smyk Magdalena (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: Gender occupational segregation, as one of the main sources of gender pay gap, is still strongly present. The stagnation of gender inequality in the labor market raises questions. One of them is how this situation is affected by sticky gender norms and inter-generational transmission of these norms. We conducted a vignette experiment in which subjects were advising fictional character in a job choice. Characters, as subjects were informed, already receive some advice from a parent or Internet occupational advisor. We find that subjects are in general more likely to follow some advice, but less likely to advise male-typed offer if the advisor is a parent. Also subjects with more traditional gender norms are less likely to advice risky, competitive, and inflexibly but better paid offers.
    Keywords: gender norms, choice of occupation, family, gender occupational segregation
    JEL: J16 J13 J24
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Albanesi, Stefania; Kim, Jiyeon
    Abstract: The economic crisis associated with the emergence of the novel corona virus is unlike standard recessions. Demand for workers in high contact and inflexible service occupations has declined, while parental supply of labor has been reduced by lack of access to reliable child care and in-person schooling options. This has led to a substantial and persistent drop in employment and labor force participation for women, who are typically less affected by recessions than men. We examine real time data on employment, unemployment, labor force participation and gross job flows to document the gendered impact of the pandemic. We also discuss the potential long-term implications of this crisis, including the role of automation in depressing the recovery of employment for the worst hit service occupations.
    Keywords: COVID-19; employment; gender gaps; labor force participation; unemployment
    JEL: E24 J16 J21 J22 J23 J63
    Date: 2021–02
  8. By: Rodríguez-González, Ana (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: In recent years, the traditional gender gap in educational attainment in favor of men has been reversed in many countries. This development may have far-reaching consequences for the family, challenging traditional patterns of union formation and potentially affecting marriage and fertility outcomes. I study the implications of the female advantage in education on family formation through changes in the marriage market. My empirical strategy exploits the gradual implementation of a large school reform in Finland that increased women’s relative level of education. I analyze the reduced-form relationship between marriage market exposure to the reform and marriage and fertility outcomes. The results show that in marriage markets with a larger female advantage in education men had fewer children and were less likely to be in a couple by age 40. I provide suggestive evidence that these results are mostly driven by the mismatch between the distributions of educational attainment of men and women, and that they might have negative consequences for low-educated men's health behaviors and mental health.
    Keywords: Gender gap; Education; Marriage; Fertility; Marriage market; Health
    JEL: I10 J12 J13 J16
    Date: 2021–04–26

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