nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒05‒03
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Who gets promoted to the top? Nuanced personality and psychosocial trait differences in highly structured work environments: Evidence from German professional female athletes By Felix Krause; Ho Fai Chan; Sascha L. Schmidt; Dominik Schreyer; Benno Torgler
  2. No Men, No Cry? How Gender Equality in Access to Credit Enhances Financial Stability By Caroline PERRIN; Laurent WEILL
  3. Historical gender discrimination does not explain comparative Western European development: Evidence from Portugal, 1300 - 1900 By Palma, Nuno; Reis, Jaime; Rodrigues, Lisbeth
  4. Career Paths with a Two-Body Problem: Occupational Specialization and Geographic Mobility By Valeria Rueda; Galeria Rueda
  5. Is there a Grand Gender Convergence in Canada? – The Jury is Still Out. By Gordon John Anderson
  6. Revisiting Gender Identity and Relative Income within Households: A Cautionary Tale on the Potential Pitfalls of Density Estimators By Kühnle, Daniel; Oberfichtner, Michael; Ostermann, Kerstin
  7. On the Quantity and Quality of Girls : Fertility, Parental Investments, and Mortality By Anukriti, S; Bhalotra, Sonia; Tam, Eddy H. F.

  1. By: Felix Krause; Ho Fai Chan; Sascha L. Schmidt; Dominik Schreyer; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: Despite a solid foundation of women’s career progression research, the role of personality and psychosocial characteristics in explaining objective career success is not yet fully understood. Structural underrepresentation of female executives at board levels remains an issue in both Europe in general and Germany in particular. Today, two alternative perspectives on the role of gender and personality in career advancement prevail. On the one hand, the gender-invariant role demands perspective suggests that women in executive positions show agentic personality traits, whereas advocates of the changing leadership roles perspective argue in the opposite direction, emphasizing the benefits of distinct communal traits in today’s changing environment. Analyzing data from 299 German athletes from different sports contexts, 159 of which are female, we investigated the unsolved labor market success puzzle of which personality, psychosocial, and cognitive characteristics are rewarded at the very top of the labor market pyramid for females versus males. Our results provide further support for the gender- invariant role demands perspective as the female athletes who made it to the highest possible ranks do not show many clearly distinguished attributes from their male peers, despite high core self-evaluation (CSES) scores, i.e., rather agentic traits like internal locus of control, self- esteem, and self-efficacy. Using survival analysis, we also find support for the gender-invariant role demands perspective in explaining the relative speed of male and female athletes’ promotions to top positions. As our results are derived from within-sex competition, i.e., women compete with women, while men compete with men for the to p ranked spots, it is particularly noteworthy that even in such settings the gender-invariant role demands perspective prevails. This implies that the numerous efforts of organizations to encourage women’s career progression in recent years need to start addressing leadership requirement perceptions at the core to plant the seed for increased probability of women reaching top executive positions.
    Keywords: CAAS; CSES; objective career success; personality traits; promotion
    Date: 2021–04
  2. By: Caroline PERRIN (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg); Laurent WEILL (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Literature has found that women outperform men in terms of loan repayment. We can therefore question whether more gender equality in access to credit fosters financial stability. We test this hypothesis using cross-country data on financial inclusion from the World Bank’s Global Findex database and bank-level data on financial stability. We perform regressions at the bank level to check if the female-to-male ratio of access to credit affects financial stability. We find evidence that the gender gap in access to credit exerts a detrimental influence on financial stability. This finding is confirmed in robustness checks that control for alternative measures of financial stability and endogeneity. Therefore our findings support the view that enhancing access to credit for women relative to men is beneficial for financial stability.
    Keywords: financial inclusion, access to credit, financial stability, gender equality.
    JEL: G21 J16
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Palma, Nuno (University of Manchester; ICS, Universidade de Lisboa; CEPR & CAGE); Reis, Jaime (ICS, Universidade de Lisboa); Rodrigues, Lisbeth (ISEG, Universidade de Lisboa)
    Abstract: Gender discrimination has been pointed out as a determining factor behind the long-run divergence in incomes of Southern vis-Ã -vis Northwestern Europe. In this paper, we show that there is no evidence that women in Portugal were historically more discriminated against than those of other parts of Western Europe, including England and the Netherlands. We rely on a new dataset of thousands of observations from archival sources which cover six centuries, and we complement it with a qualitative discussion of comparative social norms. Compared with Northwestern Europe, women in Portugal faced similar gender wage gaps, married at similar ages, and did not face more restrictions to labor market participation. Consequently, other factors must be responsible for the Little Divergence of Western European incomes.
    Keywords: Historical gender discrimination, gender wage gap, culture, social norms, comparative development, the Little Divergence, European Marriage Pattern. JEL Classification: N13, N33, J16
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Valeria Rueda (University of Nottingham and CEPR); Galeria Rueda (University of Leicester)
    Abstract: We develop a model of joint job search and occupational choice in which job opportunities can be incompatible inside the couple. Typically, incompatibilities may arise because jobs are not in the same location. We show that the existence of incompatible jobs pushes some couples to sacrifice the career of one partner. The model predicts occupational switches throughout the career and at the time of couple formation. Gendered equilibria, whereby all women (or men) choose the accommodating occupation, may arise. Any element of ex-ante unfavorable gender gaps—for instance, due to discrimination or norms—is amplified and can generate large systemic differences in gender composition between occupations.
    Keywords: two-body problem, occupational specialization, career path
    JEL: C78 D13 D83
    Date: 2021–03
  5. By: Gordon John Anderson
    Abstract: The increasing similarity of male and female roles in the labour market over the last 50 years has been dubbed “The Grand Gender Convergence†, though there is concern that the process has stalled. In the absence of gender discrimination and assuming similar preferences for work and human resource acquisition across the gender divide, females and males with similar human resource characteristics should have similar income distributions in equilibrium, in effect there would be equality of opportunity across the gender divide. If that equilibrium is stable, convergence to the equilibrium state should see increasingly similar gender based income distributions accompanied by increasingly similar gender based human resource distributions. Viewed through the lens of an equal opportunity imperative, income convergence is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for a “Grand Gender Convergence†since similarities in income distributions could be achieved with gender based differences in human resources and efforts given a discriminatory rewards structure. Here, using new tools for empirically examining distributional convergence processes, the existence of a “Grand Gender Convergence†in 21st century Canada is examined in the context of such an Equal Opportunity paradigm. While income convergence is almost universally apparent, the same is not true for human resource stocks which appear to be diverging, raising questions about the existence of a Canadian Grand Gender convergence.
    Keywords: Gender, Convergence, Distributional Differences, Human Resources.
    JEL: J3 J16 J22 J24 J31 J33 N3
    Date: 2021–04–24
  6. By: Kühnle, Daniel (University of Duisburg-Essen); Oberfichtner, Michael (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Ostermann, Kerstin (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg)
    Abstract: We show that Bertrand et al.'s (QJE 2015) finding of a sharp drop in the relative income distribution within married couples at the point where wives start to earn more than their husbands is unstable across different estimation procedures and varies across contexts. We apply the estimators by McCrary (JoE, 2008, McC) and Cattaneo et al. (JASA, 2020, CJM) to administrative data from the US and Germany and compare their performance in a simulation. Large bins cause McC to substantially overreject the null hypothesis, and mass points close to the potential discontinuity affect McC more than CJM.
    Keywords: gender norms, relative income distribution, density estimation, US, Germany, replication
    JEL: C14 C18 D10 J16
    Date: 2021–04
  7. By: Anukriti, S (Development Research Group, The World Bank); Bhalotra, Sonia (University of Warwick); Tam, Eddy H. F. (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: Access to prenatal sex-detection technology in India has led to a phenomenal increase in abortion of girls. We find that it has also narrowed the gender gap in under-5 mortality, consistent with surviving girls being more wanted than aborted girls. For every three aborted girls, one additional girl survived to age five. Mechanisms include moderation of son-biased fertility stopping and narrowing of gender gaps in parental investments. However, surviving girls are more likely to be born in lower status families. Our findings have implications not only for counts of missing girls but also for the later life outcomes of girls.
    Keywords: abortion ; child mortality ; fertility ; gender ; health ; India ; missing girls ; parental investments ; prenatal sex detection ; sex-selection ; ultrasound JEL Classification: I15 ; J13 ; J16
    Date: 2021

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