nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒04‒19
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Gap in Household Bargaining Power: A Portfolio-Choice Approach By Gu, R.; Peng, C.; Zhang, W.
  2. Culture and the cross-country differences in the gender commuting gap: Evidence from immigrants in the United States By Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
  3. Gender Differences in Reduced Well-being during the COVID-19 Pandemic – the Role of Working Conditions By Zoch, Gundula; Bächmann, Ann-Christin; Vicari, Basha
  4. The gender wealth gap in Europe: A comparative study using a model averaging methodology By Merike Kukk; Jaanika Merikyll; Tairi Room
  5. The gender gap in pension wealth in Europe: Evidence from twenty countries By Tairi Room; Orsolya Soosaar

  1. By: Gu, R.; Peng, C.; Zhang, W.
    Abstract: We quantify how bargaining power is distributed when spouses make financial decisions together. We build a model in which each spouse has a risk preference and must bargain with each other to make asset decisions for the household. By structurally estimating the model with longitudinal data from Australian households, we show that the average household’s asset allocation reflects the husband’s risk preference 44% more than the wife’s. This gap in bargaining power is partially explained by gender differences in income and employment status, but is also due to gender effects. We provide further evidence that links the distribution of bargaining power to views on gender norms in the cross-section.
    JEL: D13 G11 J16 G41 G51
    Date: 2021–04–06
  2. By: Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of the gender equality culture in cross-country gender commuting gap differences. To avoid inter-relationships between culture, institutions, and economic conditions in a simple cross-country analysis, we adopt the epidemiological approach. We merge data from the American Time Use Survey for the years 2006–2018 on early-arrival first- and second-generation immigrants living in the United States with their corresponding annual country of ancestry’s Gender Gap Index (GGI). Because all these immigrants (with different cultural backgrounds) have grown up under the same laws, institutions, and economic conditions in the US, the gender differences among them in the time devoted to commuting to/from work can be interpreted as evidence of the existence of a cultural impact. Our results show that a culture with more gender equality in the country of ancestry may reduce the gender commuting gap of parents. Specifically, an increase of 1 standard deviation in the GGI increases women’s daily commuting time relative to men by almost 5 minutes, a sizeable effect representing 23 percent of the standard deviation in the gender commuting gap across countries of ancestry. A supplementary analysis provides possible mechanisms through which culture operates and is transmitted, showing the potential existence of horizontal transmission and the importance of the presence of children in commuting. Our results are robust to the use of different subsamples, geographical controls, and selection into employment and telework.
    Keywords: Commuting,culture,immigrants,American Time Use Survey
    JEL: R41 J16 Z13
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Zoch, Gundula; Bächmann, Ann-Christin; Vicari, Basha (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "The COVID-19 pandemic has had very different impacts on the employment and family work conditions of men and women. Thus, it might have jeopardised the slow and hard-won reduction of gender inequalities in the division of labour achieved in recent decades. Using data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) and its supplementary COVID-19 web survey for Germany, we investigate the relationship between working conditions and gender differences in subjective well-being during the first months of the pandemic. Therefore, we systematically consider the household context by distinguishing between adults with and without young children. The results from multivariate regression models accounting for pre-corona satisfaction reveal a decline in all respondents' life satisfaction, particularly among women and mothers with young children. However, the greater reduction in women's well-being cannot be linked to systematic differences in working conditions throughout the pandemic. Kitagawa-Oaxaca-Blinder counterfactual decompositions confirm this conclusion. However, further robustness checks suggest that women's societal concerns and greater loneliness partly explain the remaining gender differences during the first months of the crisis. From a general perspective, our results suggest important gender differences in social life and psychological distress in spring 2020, which are likely to become more pronounced as the crisis unfolds." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: I31 J22 J28 J13
    Date: 2021–04–06
  4. By: Merike Kukk; Jaanika Merikyll; Tairi Room
    Abstract: There is abundant evidence on the gender wage gaps across countries, but much less is known about the gender differences in personal wealth. This paper provides comparative estimates of the gender wealth gaps for 21 European countries, employing data from the Household Finance and Consumption Survey. A common problem for studies focusing on this topic is that the data on wealth are usually provided at the household level and not at the individual level. This means it is only possible to estimate gender wealth gaps for single-person households. To overcome this constraint, we propose a novel approach using a model averaging methodology to predict individualised wealth data for multi-person households. We find that the gender wealth gaps tend to be in favour of men in the whole population, especially when estimated at the top of the wealth distribution. In contrast, the estimated gaps in the subset of single-person households tend to be statistically insignificant. The country-level gender wealth gaps are correlated with overall wealth inequality but not with gender gaps in pay and employment.
    Keywords: gender gap, imputation, model averaging, wealth distribution, inequality, intra-household allocation of wealth, household finance, Europe
    JEL: D31 G51 J16 J71
    Date: 2021–04–08
  5. By: Tairi Room; Orsolya Soosaar
    Keywords: retirement saving behaviour, voluntary retirement savings, mandatory retirement saving system, private pension wealth, gender gap, Europe
    JEL: D14 G23 G11 J32
    Date: 2021–04–08

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