nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒04‒12
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gendered cities: Studying urban gender bias through street names By Dolores Gutierrez-Mora; Daniel Oto-Peralías.
  2. Changing Gender Attitudes: The Long-Run Effects of Early Exposure to Female Classmates By Garcia-Brazales, Javier
  3. Women in the Boardroom: A Bottom-up Approach to the Trickle-down Effect By Anaïs A Périlleux; Ariane Szafarz
  4. COVID-19, Race, and Gender By Bertocchi, Graziella; Dimico, Arcangelo
  5. The Impacts of the Gender Imbalance on Marriage and Birth: Evidence from World War II in Japan By Kota Ogasawara; Erika Igarashi
  6. Representation is Not Sufficient for Selecting Gender Diversity By Justus A. Baron; Bernhard Ganglmair; Nicola Persico; Timothy Simcoe; Emanuele Tarantino

  1. By: Dolores Gutierrez-Mora (Universidad de Sevilla); Daniel Oto-Peralías. (Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: This paper uses text analysis to measure gender bias in cities through the use of street names. Focusing on the case of Spain, we collect data on 15 million street names to analyze gender inequality in urban toponyms. We calculate for each Spanish municipality and each year from 2001 to 2020 a variable measuring the percentage of streets with female names over the total number of streets with male and female names. Our results reveal a strong gender imbalance in Spanish cities: the percentage of streets named after women is only 12% in 2020. We also observe substantial differences across Spanish regions, and concerning new streets, gender bias is lower but still far from parity. The second part of the paper analyzes the correlation of our indicator of gender bias in street names with the cultural factor it is supposed to capture, with the results suggesting that it constitutes a useful cultural measure of gender equality at the city level. This research has policy implications since it helps to measure a relevant phenomenon, given the strong symbolic power attributed to street names, which has been elusive to quantify so far.
    Keywords: Street names, toponyms, cities, quantitative analysis, gender inequality, women.
    JEL: J16 R19 Z13
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Garcia-Brazales, Javier
    Abstract: Identity norms are an important cause of inequalities and talent misallocation. I lever- age a unique opportunity to observe students exogenously allocated to classes across a close-to-nationally-representative set of Vietnamese schools to show that more exposure to female peers during childhood causally decreases the extent of agreement with tradi- tional gender roles in the long-run. This shift in attitudes is accompanied by changes in actual behavior: employing friendship nominations I find that male children have more female friends and spend more time with them outside school. Moreover, both their intensive and extensive margin contributions to home production increase in the short- and the long-run. These results are novel in the attitudes formation and in the long- term effects of peers literature and are important in informing optimal class allocation. Academic spillovers from female classmates are much weaker.
    Keywords: Long-term Peer Effects,Gender Roles,Attitudes Formation
    JEL: I24 I25 J16
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Anaïs A Périlleux; Ariane Szafarz
    Abstract: This paper argues that role modeling can explain the impact of boardroom gender diversity on corporate performance. It theorizes that female workers are boosted by female leadership, gain increased motivation, and achieve greater productivity, thereby making their female directors more effective. We test this bottom-up approach to the trickle-down hypothesis on data hand-collected among local cooperatives providing microcredit in Senegal. All the organizations surveyed are similar and small, which allows us to use a homogenous performance metric. All of them outsource their human resource management to the same third party, which mitigates the risk of endogeneity. The data cover over 100,000 triads composed of: gender dominance on the board, gender of CEO, and gender of credit officer. A better financial performance is achieved when the triad is gender-uniform—be it male or female—confirming the importance of role modeling and suggesting that the performance of female board members depends on the gender composition of the workforce.
    Keywords: Gender; Board; Trickle-Down Effect; CEO; Performance; Leadership
    JEL: M14 J82 M54 J54 O15
    Date: 2021–03–17
  4. By: Bertocchi, Graziella (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); Dimico, Arcangelo (Queen's University Belfast)
    Abstract: The mounting evidence on the demographics of COVID-19 fatalities points to an overrepresentation of minorities and an underrepresentation of women. Using individual-level, race-disaggregated, and georeferenced death data collected by the Cook County Medical Examiner, we jointly investigate the racial and gendered impact of COVID-19, its timing, and its determinants. Through an event study approach we establish that Blacks individuals are affected earlier and more harshly and that the effect is driven by Black women. Rather than comorbidity or aging, the Black female bias is associated with poverty and channeled by occupational segregation in the health care and transportation sectors and by commuting on public transport. Living arrangements and lack of health insurance are instead found uninfluential. The Black female bias is spatially concentrated in neighborhoods that were subject to historical redlining.
    Keywords: COVID-19, deaths, race, gender, occupations, transport, redlining, Cook County, Chicago
    JEL: I14 J15 J16 J21 R38
    Date: 2021–03
  5. By: Kota Ogasawara; Erika Igarashi
    Abstract: This study uses the unprecedented changes in the sex ratio due to the losses of men during World War II to identify the impacts of the gender imbalance on marriage market and birth outcomes in Japan. Using newly digitized census-based historical statistics, we find evidence that men had a stronger bargaining position in the marriage market and intra-household fertility decisions than women. Under relative male scarcity, while people, especially younger people, were more likely to marry and divorce, widowed women were less likely to remarry than widowed men. We also find that women's bargaining position in the marriage market might not have improved throughout the 1950s. Given the institutional changes in the abortion law after the war, marital fertility and stillbirth rates increased in the areas that suffered relative male scarcity. Our result on out-of-wedlock births indicates that the theoretical prediction of intra-household bargaining is considered to be robust in an economy in which marital fertility is dominant.
    Date: 2021–02
  6. By: Justus A. Baron; Bernhard Ganglmair; Nicola Persico; Timothy Simcoe; Emanuele Tarantino
    Abstract: Representation of women and minorities in a “selectorate”—the group that chooses an organization's leaders—is a key mechanism for promoting diversity. We show that representation, on its own, is not sufficient for selecting gender diversity: a supportive organizational culture is also required. In the case of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a random increase in female representation in its selection committee caused an increase in female appointments only after cultural norms supporting diversity and inclusion became more salient.
    JEL: D02 J16 J17 M14 O32
    Date: 2021–04

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