nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒03‒01
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Role of the Gender Composition of Performance Feedback on Peers in Shaping Persistence and Performance By Sandor Katona; Anna Lovasz
  2. The importance of being earnest: What explains the gender quota effect in politics? By Sugat Chaturvedi; Sabyasachi Das; Kanika Mahajan
  3. Motherhood Employment Penalty and Gender Wage Gap Across Countries: 1990–2010 By Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Cuffe, Harold E; Doan, Nguyen
  4. The Historical Gender Gap Index: A Longitudinal and Spatial Assessment of Sweden, 1870-1990 By Karlsson, Tobias; Kok, Joris; Perrin, Faustine
  5. Mind the Gap: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis of the Heterogeneous Effects of Paid Family Leave Policies on Women’s and Men’s Earned Income in the United States By Lerner, Griffin; Sivley, Anne; Brenton, Tyler
  6. Does gender affect medical decisions? Results from a behavioral experiment with physicians and medical students By Godager, Geir; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Li, Jing Jing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Fan

  1. By: Sandor Katona (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary and Eotvos Lorand University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/a, Budapest, 1117 Hungary); Anna Lovasz (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary and University of Washington Tacoma, 1900 Commerce Street, Tacoma, WA 98402-3100, USA)
    Abstract: We study the impact of the gender composition of a scoreboard on the persistence and performance of players in an online game. Players were randomly selected into eight groups, defined along two dimensions: they saw high or average scores on a scoreboard (score level), and within each of these, they saw either 3 male, 2 male and one female, 1 male and 2 female, or 3 female names associated with the scores (gender composition). Based on 1140 participants, we find that males are generally less responsive to performance information on other participants. Compared to the baseline of all male names on the scoreboard, females play fewer games when they see only female names, but more games when they see mixed gender names with high scores. Their performance (best score) increases significantly when they see at least one female name and high scores. This result is in line with the importance of female-specific reference points – or role models - in encouraging females’ participation and higher performance in competitive settings. It supports the use of policies aimed at providing these, such as the introduction of female role models and the public acknowledgement of high performing females.
    Keywords: Gender Gaps, Competition, Performance Feedback, Gender Composition, Reference Point
    JEL: I20 J16 J24 M54
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Sugat Chaturvedi (Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi); Sabyasachi Das (Ashoka University); Kanika Mahajan (Ashoka University)
    Abstract: The literature documenting the effect of electoral gender quotas on policy is extensive, and yet its potential mechanisms remain under-explored. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of differential preference of women leaders (supply) vis-a-vis greater demand expressed by women voters in the presence of female leadership in explaining the gender quota effect. We compile data on household level allocation of a politically salient good—toilets—for the entire rural population (over 25 million households) of Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of India. We argue and show that women exhibit a greater preference for toilets than men and this gender gap is significantly larger for Muslims than Hindus. Additionally, women in female headed households, relative to male headed ones, are more likely to express greater demand. We use the religious and gender identities of council presidents and household heads as proxies for toilet preference to disentangle demand and supply effects. Using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we find that gender quota among Muslim leaders has a large and statistically significant positive effect on toilet provision, while for Hindu leaders it doesn’t have any average effect. Hindu female leaders, however, allocate disproportionately more toilets to Muslim female headed households. We establish that greater demand expressed by households explains most of the heterogeneous effects of gender quota across Hindu and Muslim Sarpanches, while we do not find any evidence of the supply mechanism. Our results have important policy implications and can reconcile the mixed evidence on the effects of gender quotas in elections.
    Keywords: sanitation, open defecation, women's agency, public good preference
    JEL: D78 H12 I18
    Date: 2021–02
  3. By: Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Cuffe, Harold E; Doan, Nguyen
    Abstract: In this paper, we employ twin birth as an instrument to estimate the effects of fertility on female employment using 72 censuses from 37 countries in 1990–2010. Next, we document a strong linear association between gender wage gap and the estimated motherhood employment penalty both across countries and within countries. Reductions in the gender wage gap are associated with decreases in motherhood employment penalty. Our estimates suggest that a reduction of one percentage-point in the gender wage gap is associated with a decrease of 0.4 percentage-points in the estimated motherhood employment penalty. Our finding supports the notion that job prospects and gender equality in the labor market play a direct role in a mother’s labor supply response to childbirth.
    Keywords: Child penalty, Motherhood penalty, Female labor supply, Gender wage gap, Twin birth,
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Karlsson, Tobias (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Kok, Joris (International Institute of Social History); Perrin, Faustine (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: Our knowledge of the long-run evolution of gender equality is limited. We currently lack quantitative indicators capable of capturing the variations on and changes in the individual dimensions of gender equality. This paper seeks to assess the long-run evolution of gender roles and relations in Sweden. To this end, we build a database with quantitative indicators of gender equality. These indicators allow us to construct a Historical Gender Gap Index (HGGI), which isused to describe and analyze the evolution of gender equality in Sweden during a phase characterized by industrialization, urbanization and demographic transition. We find that after a period of stagnation, Sweden from the 1940s onwards made significant progress in closing the gender gap to reach the high level of gender equality that it is now famous for. All counties have made substantial improvements in closing the gap over time, although some counties have been quicker than others. Our investigation reveals the existence of a convergence pattern between counties.
    Keywords: Gender Equality; Index; Development Process; Sweden
    JEL: J16 N33 O11
    Date: 2021–02–03
  5. By: Lerner, Griffin; Sivley, Anne; Brenton, Tyler
    Abstract: Since 2004, four states have begun to offer paid family leave benefits intended in part to improve labor outcomes for women as they often take on the additional burden of caregiving responsibilities. Using American Community Survey data, we analyze the effect of these policies on the gender wage gap and find results consistent with these intentions. Employing a difference-in-difference design, our analysis finds significant increases in female earnings relative to men, as well as hours worked, in states with paid family leave policies. These results remain positive across racial groups and demonstrate particularly strong effects among women who gave birth in the past year.
    Date: 2020–12–16
  6. By: Godager, Geir (Department of Health Management and Health Economics); Hennig-Schmidt, Heike (BonnEconLab, University of Bonn, Germany); Li, Jing Jing (Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China); Wang, Jian (Dong Fureng Institute of Economic and Social Development, Wuhan University, China); Yang, Fan (Department of Health Management and Health Economics)
    Abstract: It is rarely the case that differences in behaviors of females and males are described under a ceteris paribus condition, and behaviors can potentially be influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. In the case of medical decisions, physicians are expected to account for patient characteristics as well as observed and unobserved contextual factors, such as whether the patient has a healthy lifestyle. Since one usually do not randomize physicians to context, reported gender differences in medical practice can have several alternative interpretations. <p> A key question is whether the medical treatment of a given patient is expected to depend on the gender of the physician. To address this question, we quantify gender effects using data from an incentivized laboratory experiment, where Chinese medical doctors and Chinese medical students choose medical treatment under different payment schemes. We estimate preference parameters of females and males assuming decision-makers have patient-regarding preferences. We cannot reject the hypothesis that gender differences in treatment choices are absent. Preference parameters of females and males are not statistically different in a log-likelihood ratio test, and there is no evidence that the degree of randomness in choices differs between genders. <p> The absence of gender effects in the laboratory, where choice context is fixed, provides nuance to previous findings on gender differences, and highlights the general difficulty of separating individuals’ behavior from the context they are in.
    Keywords: Gender; Laboratory experiment; Bounded rationality; Physician behavior
    JEL: C92 D82 H40 I11 J33
    Date: 2021–02–22

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