nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒02‒08
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender differences in tertiary education: what explains STEM participation? By Sandra McNally
  2. Gender Gap in Digital Skills in Greece By Maria Perifanou; Anastasios A. Economides
  3. Digital News Media Coverage on Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Kenya: Scoping the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic By Broekaert, Clara; Renneboog, Ceri-Lune; Okwaro, Ferdinand; Mohiddin, Abdu; Temmerman, Marleen
  4. Home-based work, time endowments, and subjective well-being: Gender differences in the United Kingdom By Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio; Velilla, Jorge
  5. Gender Differences in Repeated Dishonest Behavior: Experimental Evidence By Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Joo Young Jeon; Chulyoung Kim; Sang-Hyun Kim
  6. Early Career, Life-Cycle Choices, and Gender By Itzik Fadlon; Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Torben Heien Nielsen
  7. The Impact of Abortion Access on Violence Against Women By Caterina Muratori

  1. By: Sandra McNally
    Abstract: The share of women achieving tertiary education has increased rapidly over time and now exceeds that of men in most OECD countries. However, women are severely under-represented in maths-intensive science fields, which are generally referred to as STEM (science, technology, engineering, and maths). The under-representation of women in these subject areas has received a great deal of attention. This is because these fields are seen to be especially important for productivity and economic growth and are associated with occupations that have higher earnings. Subject of degree is an important part of the explanation for the gender wage gap. The aim of this paper is to review evidence on explanations for the STEM gap in tertiary education. This starts with statistics about background context and evidence on how well-prepared male and female students may be for studying STEM at a later stage. I then discuss what the literature has to say about the role of personal attributes: namely confidence, self-efficacy and competitiveness and the role of preferences and expectations. I go on to discuss features of the educational context thought to be important for influencing attributes and preferences (or mediating their effects): peers; teachers; role models; and curriculum. I then briefly discuss broader cultural influences. I use the literature reviewed to discuss policy implications.
    Keywords: STEM, gender gap, tertiary education
    JEL: I20 J16
    Date: 2020–10
  2. By: Maria Perifanou (University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece); Anastasios A. Economides (University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece)
    Abstract: Inequalities between men and women exist not only in economy and society but also in education all over the world. Many initiatives are launched to empower women with advanced skills in many countries. This paper describes the policies and initiatives to foster gender equality in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-related education and employment in Greece. National and European Union (EU) statistics show that there exists a wide gender gap in ICT-related higher education participation, employment, and salaries in Greece. Various policies and initiatives aim at empowering women with digital skills. The paper suggests a framework to fight gender discrimination in ICT across four (4) dimensions (ICT education, training, digital tools and infrastructure, people networking, ICT jobs) and three (3) axes (access, use and participate, create). The resulting framework consists of twelve (12) areas. The paper gives example strategies for some of the areas. Finally, the paper present conclusions and suggestions for future research.
    Keywords: digital skills, digital competence, employment initiatives, equality policies, gender differences, gender gap, gender inequality, ICT skills, equality policies
    Date: 2020–12
  3. By: Broekaert, Clara; Renneboog, Ceri-Lune; Okwaro, Ferdinand; Mohiddin, Abdu; Temmerman, Marleen
    Abstract: Background: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in Kenya is frequently covered in digital news media. As a powerful influencer of public opinion, news media coverage can have a significant societal impact. This scoping review identifies the extent, nature, and themes of all available digital news media coverage on SGBV in Kenya from June 2019 to July 2020. It analyzes changes in coverage since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The methodological framework for scoping reviews developed by Arksey and O’Malley (2005) guided the scoping review. The selected articles were analyzed using NVivo. Results: Analysis of the 340 included articles indicates clear trends in news media coverage on SGBV in Kenya. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, trends include high numbers of news reports, feature articles, and opinion pieces on SGBV, female genital mutilation (FGM) as the most covered form of SGBV, and opinion pieces in line with the Kenya Vision 2030 agenda. Since the implementation of the COVID-19 mitigation measures in Kenya, trends include an increase in news media coverage on SGBV, extensive reporting on the causes of the rise in SGBV cases in Kenya, and increased media attention for domestic and sexual violence. Conclusions: Analysis of the news media coverage demonstrates the health advocacy/agenda-setting role of the media. The increased reporting on SGBV since the implementation of the COVID-19 mitigation measures could facilitate broad-based awareness.
    Date: 2021–01–10
  4. By: Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio; Velilla, Jorge
    Abstract: The confinement caused by Covid-19, and the associated promotion of telework to reduce exposure of workers to the disease, have clear implications for worker daily behaviors and well-being. This paper empirically explores the differences between commuters’ and teleworkers’ time allocations during their workdays, and the instant enjoyment experienced while doing such activities, with a focus on gender differences. Using detailed information from the UK Time Use Survey for the years 2014-2015, the results show a statistically significant cut in female and male paid work time associated with teleworking. On the other hand, teleworkers spend more time than commuters in unpaid work and leisure activities. The results also reveal a cut in women’s experienced enjoyment while doing telework, while male teleworkers enjoy their leisure more than do commuters. These results suggest that confinement policies promoting teleworking may impact not only worker time allocations, but also individual well-being, and such an impact may differ between men and women, leading to intrahousehold imbalances.
    Keywords: Gender difference; telework; time use; subjective well-being; UKTUS
    JEL: D1
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Subhasish M. Chowdhury (Department of Economics, University of Bath); Joo Young Jeon (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Chulyoung Kim (School of Economics, Yonsei University); Sang-Hyun Kim (School of Economics, Yonsei University)
    Abstract: We investigate gender difference in lying behavior when the opportunity to tell lies is repeated. In specific, we distinguish the situations in which such an opportunity can be planned versus when it comes as a surprise. We use data from an existing study (Chowdhury et al., 2021) and show that when the opportunity to tell a lie comes as a surprise, then on the first occasion, males lie more than females. However, when telling lies can be planned, there is no gender difference in telling a lie. When planning is possible, females tell more lies in the first occasion than when it is not. Males do not show such behavior. On the second and final occasion, males lie more than females only when they either could not plan but had an opportunity to lie before or could plan but did not have to tell a lie before.
    Keywords: Dishonesty, Lying, Pre-planning, Gender
    JEL: C91 D01 D91 J16
    Date: 2021–01–31
  6. By: Itzik Fadlon; Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Torben Heien Nielsen
    Abstract: Do early labor market experiences determine longer-run life and career outcomes, and do they operate differentially for males and females? We study this question in the context of the physician labor market by exploiting a randomized lottery that determines the sorting of Danish physicians into internships, where students with bad lottery numbers end up assigned to less desirable local labor markets and entry-level jobs. Using administrative data that span up to ten years after physicians’ graduations, we study key decisions that determine their longer-run life trajectories. We find causal effects of early-career labor market sorting on a range of life-cycle outcomes that cascade from longer-run labor market sorting, to human capital accumulation, to occupational choice, and even to fertility. Notably, we find that the persistent longer-run effects are entirely driven by females, whereas males experience only temporary career disruptions from unfavorable early-stage sorting. The gender divergence is unlikely to be explained by preferences over entry-level markets, but differential family obligations, attitude toward competition, and mentorship appear to play operative roles. Our findings have implications for policies aiming at outcome-based gender equality, as they reveal how persistent gaps can arise even in an institutionally gender-neutral setting with early-stage equality of opportunity.
    JEL: H0 I11 I23 J01 J13 J16 J24 R23
    Date: 2020–12
  7. By: Caterina Muratori (Department of Economics, University of Reading)
    Abstract: I document the effect of restrictions on abortion access on violence against women. Limiting access to abortion implies higher rates of unintended pregnancies and subsequent lower bargaining power for women. I start from the evidence of a sharp reduction in the abortion rate and an increase in fertility after the implementation of state laws regulating abortion in the U.S., to evaluate the impact of these restrictive policies on violence against women. I implement a generalized difference-in difference model, finding that a one minute increase in time needed to reach the nearest abortion clinic causes an increase in the number of reported cases of violence against women of 0.12 percent in the same period, and 0.14 percent the following year.
    Keywords: Abortion, Gender Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Trap Law
    JEL: I11 J12 J13 J16 J18 K23
    Date: 2021–01–29

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