nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒01‒25
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Differences in the Skill Content of Jobs By Rita Petõ; Reizer Balázs
  2. Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: Evidence from Industry-Level Data By Ata Can Bertay; Ljubica Dordevic; Can Sever
  3. Immigration and Gender Differences in the Labor Market By Joan Llull
  4. Gender differences in preferences of adolescents: evidence from a large-scale classroom experiment By Dániel Horn; Hubert János Kiss; Tünde Lénárd
  5. Gender Norms and Specialization in Household Production: Evidence from a Danish Parental Leave Reform By Lassen, Anne Sophie
  6. Gender Differences in Private and Public Goal Setting By Jordi Brandts; Sabrine El Baroudi; Stefanie J. Huber; Cristina Rott
  7. Risk attitude and capital market participation: Is there a gender investment gap in Germany? By Fey, Jan-Christian; Lerbs, Oliver; Schmidt, Carolin; Weber, Martin
  8. The Legacy of the Missing Men: The Long-Run Impact of World War I on Female Labor Force Participation By Gay, Victor
  9. Examining Gender Differences in Predictors of Financial Satisfaction: Evidence from Taiwan By Tharp, Derek; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth

  1. By: Rita Petõ (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary); Reizer Balázs (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary)
    Abstract: There is significant heterogeneity in actual skill use within occupations even though occupations are differentiated by the tasks workers should perform during work. Using data on 12 countries which are available both in the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies survey and International Social Survey Program, we show that women use their cognitive skills less than men even within the same occupation. The gap in skill intensity cannot be explained by differences in worker characteristics or in cognitive skills. Instead, we show that living in a partnership significantly increases the skill use of men compared with women. We argue that having a partner affects skill use through time allocation as the gender penalty of partnered women is halved once we control for working hours and hours spent on housework. Finally, we do not find evidence of workplace discrimination against women.
    Keywords: Gender Gaps, Time Allocation, Human Capital, Skills
    JEL: J16 J22 J24
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Ata Can Bertay; Ljubica Dordevic; Can Sever
    Abstract: We study whether higher gender equality facilitates economic growth by enabling better allocation of a valuable resource: female labor. By allocating female labor to its more productive use, we hypothesize that reducing gender inequality should disproportionately benefit industries with typically higher female share in their employment relative to other industries. Specifically, we exploit within-country variation across industries to test whether those that typically employ more women grow relatively faster in countries with ex-ante lower gender inequality. The test allows us to identify the causal effect of gender inequality on industry growth in value-added and labor productivity. Our findings show that gender inequality affects real economic outcomes.
    Keywords: Gender inequality;Women;Gender;Labor;Employment;WP,female share,gender composition,benchmark country,country-industry observation
    Date: 2020–07–03
  3. By: Joan Llull (MOVE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and Barcelona GSE)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of immigration on gender gaps in the labor market. Using an equilibrium structural model for the U.S. economy, I simulate the importance of two mechanisms: the differential labor market competition induced by immigration on male and female workers, and the availability of cheaper child care services. Consistent with the literature, aggregate effects on gender and participation gaps are negligible. However, female are more negatively affected by labor market competition, even though these effects are compensated from the cheaper-childcare effect. This generates heterogeneity in the effects along the skill distribution: gender gaps are increased at the bottom of the distribution and reduced at the top. Human capital adjustments are also heterogeneous.
    Keywords: Gender Gaps, Immigration, Human Capital, Child-care Cost, Competition, Equilibrium
    JEL: J16 J2 J31 J61
    Date: 2021–01
  4. By: Dániel Horn (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies. 1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán utca 4.andDepartment of Economics, Corvinus University of Budapest. 1093 Budapest Fõvám tér 8.); Hubert János Kiss (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies. 1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán utca 4.andDepartment of Economics, Corvinus University of Budapest. 1093 Budapest Fõvám tér 8.); Tünde Lénárd (SOFI, Stockholm University. SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies. 1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán utca 4.)
    Abstract: In this study, we estimate unadjusted and adjusted gender gap in time preference, risk attitudes, altruism, trust, trustworthiness, cooperation and competitiveness using data on 1088 high-school students from 53 classes. These data, collected by running incentivized experiments in Hungarian classrooms, are linked to an administrative data source on the students’ standardized test scores, grades and family background. We find that after taking into account class fixed effects, females are significantly more altruistic (both with classmates and schoolmates), but are less present-biased, less risk tolerant, less trusting, less trustworthy and less competitive than males. At the same time we do not observe significant gender differences in patience, time inconsistency and cooperation at the 5% significance level. We also show that these initial gender differences do not change even if we control for age, family background, cognitive skills and school grades in a regression framework. Moreover, the gender gap also remains in all but one of these preferences even if we control for the other preference domains, suggesting that only risk preferences are confounded by the other preferences, at least as the gender gap in these preferences is concerned.
    Keywords: adolescents, altruism, competitiveness, cooperation, dictator game, patience, present bias, public goods game, risk preferences, social preferences, time inconsistency, time preferences, trust, trustworthiness
    JEL: C80 C90 D91
    Date: 2021–01
  5. By: Lassen, Anne Sophie (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: This paper shows that decisions regarding intra-household specializations are determined by gender norms rather than standard economic incentives. To test theoretical predictions of both the standard model of intra-household time allocation and the role of gender identity, social category and prescriptions, I use variation from a Danish parental leave reform. I find large effects among mothers and virtually unchanged behavior among fathers, irrespective of relative earnings in the household. This is consistent with the notion of pay-off from gender identity. Subsequently, I find peer effects among sisters and interpret this as reform-induced prescriptions regarding extensive leave for mothers.
    Keywords: Intra-household specialization; Gender norms; Parental leave; Peer effects
    JEL: D13 J13 J16 J18 J22
    Date: 2021–01–08
  6. By: Jordi Brandts; Sabrine El Baroudi; Stefanie J. Huber; Cristina Rott
    Abstract: We conduct a field and an online classroom experiment to study gender differences in self-set performance goals and their effects on performance in a real-effort task. We distinguish between public and private goals, performance being public and identifiable in both cases. Participants set significantly more ambitious goals when these are public. Women choose lower goals than men in both treatments, but in particular when goals are private information. Men perform better than women under private and public goals as well as in the absence of goal setting, consistent with the identifiability of performance causing gender differences, as found in other studies. Compared to private goal setting, public goal setting does not affect men’s performance at all but it leads to women’s performance being significantly lower. Comparing self-set goals with actual performance we find that under private goal setting women’s performance is on average 67% of goals, whereas for men it is 57%. Under public goal setting the corresponding percentages are 43% and 39%, respectively.
    Keywords: Gender Gap, goal setting, public observability, experiment
    JEL: C91 J01 J16 J82
    Date: 2021–01
  7. By: Fey, Jan-Christian; Lerbs, Oliver; Schmidt, Carolin; Weber, Martin
    Abstract: Do women invest differently than men? We contribute to the answer of this question by analysing the Panel on Household Finances (PHF) of the German Bundesbank. This representative panel collects a wide variety of behavioural and financial variables in the area of household finance. We find that participation in risky assets is generally lower among women than among men. Once risk attitude is controlled for, this effect shrinks to only 2.6 percent. We find no difference when single women are compared to single men - even irrespective of other demographic variables. The raw gap in capital market participation is mainly explained by different risk attitudes and monetary endowments, but women would participate even less in the capital market if they reacted as sensitively to risk aversion as their male counterparts. Lastly, given participation in the market, we find that both genders hold comparable portions of risky assets in their portfolios. Within their risky assets, men invest more in certificates and listed shares whereas women invest more in funds.
    Keywords: Capital market participation,gender,risk attitude,risky assets
    JEL: G11
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Gay, Victor
    Abstract: This paper explores the pathways that underlie the diffusion of women's participation in the labor force across generations. I exploit a severe exogenous shock to the sex ratio, World War I in France, which generated a large inflow of women in the labor force after the war. I show that this shock to female labor transmitted to subsequent generations until today. Three mechanisms of intergenerational transmission account for this result: parental transmission, transmission through marriage, and transmission through local social interactions. Beyond behaviors, the war also permanently altered beliefs toward the role of women in the labor force.
    Keywords: Female labor force participation; World War I; Sex ratio; Intergenerational transmission; Gender norms
    JEL: J16 J22 N34 Z13
    Date: 2021–01–07
  9. By: Tharp, Derek; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth
    Abstract: Using an integrative model of top-down and bottom-up influences on financial satisfaction, this study examines gender differences in the predictors of financial satisfaction in Taiwan. Using the 2016 wave of the Panel Study of Family Dynamics (PSFD), gender differences in the extent to which top-down (trait positive and negative affect) and bottom-up (demographic, financial, and social support) factors predicted financial satisfaction were explored within three Taiwanese social contexts: all adults (n=3,593), working adults (n=2,713), and married working adults (n=1,306). Varied gender differences were observed across all three social contexts. In particular, income (more strongly associated among men than women), education (more strongly associated among women than men), and trait negative affect (more strongly associated among women than men) tended to predict financial satisfaction differently by gender. Trait positive affect predicted financial satisfaction regardless of gender. The present analysis suggests traditional breadwinner ideologies continue to influence financial satisfaction assessment in Taiwan.
    Date: 2020–12–07

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