nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒01‒18
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Brothers increase women’s gender conformity By Anne Ardila Brenøe
  2. Gender Differences in Performance under Competition: Is There a Stereotype Threat Shadow? By Geraldes, Diogo; Riedl, Arno; Strobel, Martin
  3. Competition , Subjective Feedback, and Gender Gaps in Performance By Anna Lovasz; Boldmaa Bat-Erdene; Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska; Mariann Rigo; Agnes Szabo-Morvai
  4. Time Use and Life Satisfaction within Couples: A Gender Analysis for Belgium By Bram De Rock; Guillaume Perilleux
  5. Artists’ Labour Market and Gender: Evidence from German visual artists By Marchenko, Maria; Sonnabend, Hendrik
  6. Gender Differences in College Applications: Aspiration and Risk Management By Delaney, Judith; Devereux, Paul J.

  1. By: Anne Ardila Brenøe
    Abstract: I examine how one central aspect of the family environment—sibling sex composition—affects women’s gender conformity. Using Danish administrative data, I causally estimate the effect of having a second-born brother relative to a sister for first-born women. I show that women with a brother acquire more traditional gender roles, as measured through their choice of occupation and partner. This results in a stronger response to motherhood in labor market outcomes. As a relevant mechanism, I provide evidence of increased gender-specialized parenting in families with mixed-sex children. Finally, I find persistent effects to the next generation of girls.
    Keywords: Gender norms, gender conformity, sibling sex, occupational choice, motherhood
    JEL: J12 J13 J16 J22 J24 J31
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Geraldes, Diogo (Utrecht University); Riedl, Arno (Maastricht University); Strobel, Martin (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The gender gap in income and leadership positions in many domains of our society is an undisputed pervasive phenomenon. One explanation for the disadvantaged position of women put forward in the economic and psychology literature is the weaker response of women to competitive incentives. Despite the large amount of literature trying to explain this fact, the precise mechanisms behind the gender difference in competitive responsiveness are still not fully uncovered. In this paper, we use laboratory experiments to study the potential role of stereotype threat on the response of men and women to competitive incentives in mixed-gender competition. We use a real effort math task to induce an implicit stereotype threat against women in one treatment. In additional treatments we, respectively, reinforce this stereotype threat and induce a stereotype threat against men. In contrast to much of the literature we do not observe that women are less competitive than men, neither when there is an implicit nor when there is an explicit stereotype threat against women. We attribute this to two factors which differentiates our experiment from previous ones. We control, first, for inter-individual performance differences using a within-subject design, and, second, for risk differences between non-competitive and competitive environments by making the former risky. We do find an adverse stereotype threat effect on the performance of men when there is an explicit stereotype threat against them. In that case any positive performance effect of competition is nullified by the stereotype threat. Overall, our results indicate that a stereotype threat has negative competitive performance effects only if there is information contradicting an existing stereotype. This suggests that the appropriate intervention to prevent the adverse effect of stereotype threat in performance is to avoid any information referring to the stereotype.
    Keywords: competitiveness, gender gaps, stereotype threat, experiment
    JEL: C91 D01 J16
    Date: 2020–12
  3. By: Anna Lovasz (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary and University of Washington Tacoma, 1900 Commerce Street, Tacoma, WA 98402-3100, USA); Boldmaa Bat-Erdene (Eotvos Lorand University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/a, Budapest, 1117 Hungary); Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska (University of Warsaw, Faculty of Economic Sciences, D³uga 44/50, 00-241 Warsaw, Poland); Mariann Rigo (University of Düsseldorf, Institute of Medical Sociology, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany); Agnes Szabo-Morvai (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary and University of Debrecen, Economics Department, Böszörményi út 132, Debrecen, 4032 Hungary)
    Abstract: We study gender differences in the impacts of competition and subjective feedback, using an online game with pop-up texts and graphics as treatments. We define 8 groups: players see a Top 10 leaderboard or not (competitiveness), and within these, they receive no feedback, supportive feedback, rewarding feedback, or "trash talk" (feedback type). Based on 5191 participants, we find that competition only increases the performance of males. However, when it is combined with supportive feedback, the performance of females also increases. This points to individualized feedback as a potential tool for decreasing gender gaps in competitive settings such as STEM fields.
    Keywords: Gender Gaps, Competition, Supervisory Feedback
    JEL: I20 J16 J24 M54
    Date: 2021–01
  4. By: Bram De Rock; Guillaume Perilleux
    Abstract: This study looks at the time allocations of individuals with a focus on paid and unpaid work, its division within the households, as well as its link with life satisfaction. The analysis is performed for Belgium in 2016 using the MEqIn database, a database containing information on both partners in the household. Time use by men and women appears to be quite different. Men are found to be more active in the paid activities and women in the unpaid ones. The link between time use and life satisfaction appears to be different for each gender as well. As in previous tudies, women are found to be happier when working part-time. However, the usual conclusion that they follow traditional gender norm is challenged as it appears that this result remains only when they also undertake the majority of the unpaid work. This supports the idea that women active on the paid labor market suffer from a double burden. We then look at the within household interdependencies in the time allocations and at the link these can have with the subjective well-being of both men and women. Doing so, it appears that men’s behavior can be related to the gender-identity hypothesis, and more precisely to its bread-winner version, while women’s behavior is closer to a egalitarian vision of the division of work. We further observe that those behaviors are softened by the presence of children.
    Keywords: Time use, Unpaid work, Household division of labor, Subjective well-being, Gender, Parenthood
    Date: 2021–01
  5. By: Marchenko, Maria; Sonnabend, Hendrik
    Abstract: Using comprehensive data from German visual artists, we provide strong empirical evidence of a gender gap in revenues. We find that female artists have significantly lower revenues from the art market and are about ten percentage points less likely to remain in the top category over three years. This gap persists in the most prominent art forms and is more pronounced for younger artists. Only 30 to 40 percent of these gaps can be explained by differences in observable characteristics. We also find differences in the networking behaviour of the artists of different genders: females are connecting more, whereas males tend to create tighter links, suggesting the importance of the latter for the art market.
    Keywords: art market, artists’ earnings, gender gaps
    Date: 2020–12
  6. By: Delaney, Judith (University of Bath); Devereux, Paul J. (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: We study gender differences in decision-making strategy when applying for college using applications data for all college applicants in Ireland over the 2015-17 period. Detailed information on high school subjects and grades enable us to examine how the college choices of equally achieving students differ by gender. We find that female students better balance the opportunity to aim for highly selective programmes with their top choices while also listing programmes with lower entry requirements so as to reduce their risk of not being admitted to any programme. We also find that females favour field of study over institution with their top 3 choices being more likely to cluster on field of study and less likely to be for a particular college. When we investigate how effects differ across the achievement distribution, we find that gender differences in risk management are concentrated amongst high achieving students.
    Keywords: college applications, gender differences, risk management
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2020–12

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