nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. An Experiment on Gender Representation in Majoritarian Bargaining By Andrzej Baranski Author e-mail:; Diogo Geraldes Author e-mail:; Ada Kovaliukaite Author e-mail:; James Tremewan Author e-mail:
  2. Subjective Judgment and Gender Bias in Advice: Evidence from the Laboratory By Silva Goncalves, Juliana; van Veldhuizen, Roel
  3. Gender and leadership in organizations: Promotions, demotions and angry workers By Priyanka Chakraborty; Danila Serra
  4. The 'mighty girl' effect: does parenting daughters alter attitudes towards gender norms? By Borrell-Porta, Mireia; Costa-Font, Joan; Philipp, Julia
  5. Child Penalty in Russia: Evidence from an Event Study By Lebedinski, Lara; Perugini, Cristiano; Vladisavljević, Marko
  6. Is Excess (Fe)Male Mortality Caused by the Prenatal Environment, Child Biology, or Parental Discrimination? New Evidence from Male-Female Twins By Roland Pongou

  1. By: Andrzej Baranski Author e-mail:; Diogo Geraldes Author e-mail:; Ada Kovaliukaite Author e-mail:; James Tremewan Author e-mail: (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: Does the gender composition of committees affect negotiations in majoritarian bargaining? We report the results of an experiment in which subjects are placed in triads to negotiate the division of a sum of money under majority rule and the gender composition of the group is manipulated, ranging from all female (FFF), female majority (FFM), male majority (MMF), to all male (MMM). Results show that men are more likely to make the opening offer, and contrary to our hypothesis, agreements are reached fastest in MMM and slowest in FFF. The proportion of grand coalitions is increasing in the number of females while minimal winning coalitions (MWCs) increase monotonically in the number of males. MWCs are disproportionately more likely to be same-gender in MMF, which leads to a gender gap in earnings compared to FFM. When provisional MWCs form prior to a final agreement, excluded men are more proactive than excluded women in attempting to break the coalition by making alluring offers, which partially explains why mixed gender MWCs are less frequent in MMF compared to FFM. Notably, some females adopt male-type behavior in MMF regarding their initial proposals and aggressiveness when left out from a MWC.
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Silva Goncalves, Juliana (University of Sydney, Australia); van Veldhuizen, Roel (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: Better understanding and reducing gender gaps in the labor market remains an important policy goal. We study the role of advice in sustaining these gender gaps using a laboratory experiment. In the experiment, “advisers” advise “workers” to choose between a more ambitious and a less ambitious task based on the worker’s subjective self-assessment. We expected female workers to be less confident and advisers to hold gender stereotypes, leading to a gender bias in advice. However, we find no evidence that women are less confident or that advice is gender-biased. Our results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms driving gender differences in the labor market. They also call for caution when making general interpretations of research findings pointing to a gender bias in specific settings.
    Keywords: Advice; Subjective judgment; Gender bias
    JEL: C91 D91 J16
    Date: 2020–12–14
  3. By: Priyanka Chakraborty (Allegheny College, Department of Economics); Danila Serra (Texas A&M University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Managerial decisions, such as promotions and demotions, please some employees and upset others. We examine whether having to communicate such decisions to employees, and knowing that employees may react badly, have a differential impact on men's and women's self-selection into leadership roles and their performance if they become leaders. In a novel laboratory experiment that simulates corporate decision-making, we find that women are significantly less likely to self-select into a managerial position when employees can send them angry messages. Once in the manager role, there is some evidence of gender differences in decision-making, but no difference in final outcomes, i.e., overall profits. Male and female managers use different language to motivate their employees, yet differences in communication styles emerge only when workers can send angry messages to managers. Finally, low-rank employees send more angry messages to female managers, and are more likely to question their decisions.
    Keywords: Gender Differences, Leadership, Backlash, Experiment.
    JEL: C92 D91 J16
    Date: 2021–01–04
  4. By: Borrell-Porta, Mireia; Costa-Font, Joan; Philipp, Julia
    Abstract: We study the effect of parenting daughters on attitudes towards gender norms in the UK; specifically, attitudes towards the traditional male breadwinner norm in which it is the husband's role to work and the wife's to stay at home. We find robust evidence that rearing daughters decreases fathers' likelihood to hold traditional attitudes. This result is driven by fathers of school-aged daughters, for whom the effects are robust to the inclusion of individual fixed effects. Our estimates suggest that fathers' probability to support traditional gender norms declines by approximately 3%age points (8%) when parenting primary school-aged daughters and by 4%age points (11%) when parenting secondary school-aged daughters. The effect on mothers' attitudes is generally not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with exposure and identity theories. We conclude that gender norm attitudes are not stable throughout the life-course and can significantly be shaped by adulthood experiences.
    Keywords: gender norms; gender division of work; gender role attitudes; attitude formation; daughters; child gender
    JEL: J7 Z1
    Date: 2019–01–01
  5. By: Lebedinski, Lara (Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade); Perugini, Cristiano (University of Perugia); Vladisavljević, Marko (Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade)
    Abstract: Despite years of women's progress toward equality, gender disparities in the labour market persist, and parenthood has been identified as one of its key drivers. In this paper we investigate the child penalty in Russia by using longitudinal data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) and the methodological framework of event studies. Our findings show that five years after child birth women suffer an earnings penalty, while the same effect is not observed for men. The child penalty for women stems from lower employment after birth. In contrast to similar studies on Western European countries and the US, we do not find child penalties in terms of working hours or hourly wage rates. We further find that mothers' employment penalty is strongly driven by household characteristics and by their spouses' beliefs, while their own beliefs and background play no role.
    Keywords: child penalty, Russia, event study, RLMS
    JEL: J16 J13 J31
    Date: 2020–12
  6. By: Roland Pongou (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON)
    Abstract: Male-female differences in early age mortality continue to be an important source of child inequality in the world, and are a likely cause of gender disparities in human capital accumulation. Recent literature highlights the important role of the prenatal environment in inducing these differences, in addition to biological influences and gender discrimination in the allocation of resources. However, the distinct roles of these three sets of factors have not been quantified in a unified framework. We propose a new methodology for decomposing male-female differences in mortality into the distinct effects of the prenatal environment, child biology, and parental preferences. We implement this methodology by comparing the mortality sex gap among male-female twins versus all twins in India, a country where daughters are discriminated against, and sub-Saharan Africa, a region where sons and daughters have been found to be valued by their parents about equally. We uncover three main findings: (1) both the prenatal environment and biology increase the mortality risk of boys in these regions; (2) the relative importance of the prenatal environment increases with age, while the effect of biology decreases and even reverses in later childhood; and (3) parental discrimination against girls in India significantly raises their mortality; however, failure to control for the effect of the prenatal environment, biological influences, and the endogeneity of sex determination (due to parental factors and sex-selective abortion) leads traditional methodological approaches to underestimate the effect of discrimination on excess female mortality by 173 percent in the period from birth to 1 year, and by 23 percent between the ages of 1 and 5. Taken together, the findings provide novel quantitative evidence on the relative importance of nature versus nurture in the mortality gap between males and females, and show that the impact of discrimination against girls in certain societies has been underrated.
    Keywords: Male-female differences in mortality; nature versus nurture; prenatal environment; child biology; discrimination against girls; twins; decomposition methodology.
    Date: 2020

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