nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒12‒14
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Aspect of Immigrants' Assimilation in Europe By Lee, Tae Hoon; Peri, Giovanni; Viarengo, Martina
  2. Gender-Specific Effects of Import Competition on Individual Fertility Decisions By Piriu, Andreea A.
  3. What's in a Name? Does Racial or Gender Discrimination in Marking Exist? By Chowdhury, Shyamal; Klauzner, Ilya; Slonim, Robert
  4. Gender board diversity and the cost of bank loans By Panagiotis Karavitis; Sotirios Kokas; Serafeim Tsoukas
  5. Mining and Gender Gaps in India By Guimbeau, Amanda; Ji, James; Menon, Nidhiya; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana

  1. By: Lee, Tae Hoon (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); Peri, Giovanni (University of California, Davis); Viarengo, Martina (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: The labor market performance of immigrants relative to natives has been widely studied but its gender dimension has been relatively neglected. Our paper aims at revisiting labor market convergence between immigrants and natives and examining this under-studied dimension in a comprehensive study of the EU-15 countries and Switzerland over the period 1999-2018. We measure convergence of labor market outcomes for male and female migrants to similar natives before and after the Great Recession and across countries of destination. Our results show that in most countries female migrants start with a larger employment gap but converge more rapidly than male migrants do. We also provide a broad overview of the role of potential factors such as economic conditions, labor markets structure, institutions and attitudes towards immigrants and women and their association with employment convergence of all immigrants and female immigrants specifically. While the analysis provides an interesting insight, we do not identify very significant factors at the national level. We find a very strong correlation between attitudes towards immigrants and their employment convergence across sub-national regions.
    Keywords: international migration, labor market integration, gender gaps
    JEL: J61 J00 J16
    Date: 2020–12
  2. By: Piriu, Andreea A.
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of import competition from China and Eastern Europe (EE) on the fertility decisions of individuals in German manufacturing. Through the lens of gender, the paper uniquely contributes to the literature by linking import competition to longitudinal individual data to examine individual fertility. Two separate measures of import exposure are computed for competition from China and EE (amassing five countries), whose trade volumes with Germany have increased remarkably during the panel years. Fixed-effects instrumental variable (FEIV) estimation results show that individual fertility decreases by 1.6 p.p. and by 2.0 p.p. with rising competition from China and EE, respectively. The effects are robust and consistent across different subgroups of individuals. Effects of import competition are then inspected by gender, alongside potential mechanisms underlying fertility decisions. Both male and female workers' fertility is affected via reduced earnings, though differently. The effect on male fertility is negative, with shortened employment duration. Conversely, the effect on female workers' fertility is positive, with worsened working conditions. Furthermore, in line with family economics theory, these results suggest that there is a substitution effect in the labour supply of women, here prevalently concentrated in low-technology sectors: as female earnings fall and their opportunity cost of work is lower, the prospect of having children possibly becomes a more rewarding alternative.
    Keywords: trade-induced shocks,labour market conditions,import competition,individual fertility,female labour supply,FEIV estimation,Germany
    JEL: F14 F16 J11 J13 J16
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Chowdhury, Shyamal (University of Sydney); Klauzner, Ilya (Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research); Slonim, Robert (University of Sydney)
    Abstract: We study whether racial or gender discrimination in marking exists at universities by conducting an experiment at a major Australian university where we randomly assigned names indicative of White, Chinese or Adopter identities (comprised of a White first name and Chinese surname) and male or female gender to real exam coversheets and recruited university graders to mark these exams. We find that the most economically-significant evidence of discrimination is found at grade thresholds. Exam scripts with Chinese and Adopter names are less likely than White names to receive a mark just above a grade threshold. Conversely, scripts with Chinese names receive a small marking bonus on average compared to the same script with a White name. Discrimination at grade thresholds is found to be more consistent with taste-based discrimination, whereas discrimination at the average is more consistent with statistical discrimination.
    Keywords: racial discrimination, experiment, marking
    JEL: J15 J71 J64 C93
    Date: 2020–11
  4. By: Panagiotis Karavitis; Sotirios Kokas; Serafeim Tsoukas
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between female board representation and the cost of lending, using a dataset of 13,714 loans from 386 banks matched with 2,432 non-financial firms from 1999 to 2013. We find that firms with female directors command lower loan spreads. In addition, female independent directors have a stronger impact on lowering spreads compared to female directors' other attributes. However, as firms build relationships with their lenders this effect becomes less potent. Finally, when we introduce firm-level heterogeneity we document that changes in gender diversity exert a stronger impact on the cost of lending in the case of bank-dependent firms, especially for relationship borrowers.
    Keywords: Gender diversity, Board of directors, Bank loans, Relationship lending
    JEL: G21 G30
    Date: 2020–09
  5. By: Guimbeau, Amanda (Brandeis University); Ji, James (Brandeis University); Menon, Nidhiya (Brandeis University); van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana (Rutgers University)
    Abstract: This study on the economics of gender differences examines whether the mining industry acts as a blessing or curse for women's well-being and economic status. The analysis focuses on the impact of proximity to mineral deposits and active mines on various measures of women's agency and health in India. Identification leverages the plausibly exogenous spatial variation in the occurrence of mineral deposits across districts. Results indicate that women's outcomes improve in the vicinity of mines with improvements in shared decision-making, reductions in barriers to accessing medical care, and reduced tolerance of physical violence. These benefits are pronounced among younger women, and in the proximity of mines that employ relatively high shares of women. The underlying mechanisms include employment gains for women and improvements in women's health near mines. Their children also experience gains in nutritional status. Men's likelihood of making decisions jointly with partners increases, and men are less likely to justify domestic violence. A key explanation for these results is the sharing of mining royalties with local groups that support investments in women and children. Findings imply that mineral mining can bring substantial benefits to women's well-being, which is critical for sustainable development.
    Keywords: minerals, mining, women, agency, education, health, profit sharing, India
    JEL: O13 Q32 J16 J12
    Date: 2020–11

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