nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒12‒07
ten papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Gaps and the Role of Bosses By Moritz Drechsel-Grau; Felix Holub
  2. Gender Wage Gap and Firm Market Power: Evidence from Chile By Sánchez, Rafael; Finot, Javier; Villena, Mauricio G.
  3. An Evaluation of the Gender Wage Gap Using Linked Survey and Administrative Data By Thomas B. Foster; Marta Murray-Close; Liana Christin Landivar; Mark deWolf
  4. Parental gender stereotypes and student wellbeing in China By Chu, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  5. The Effect of Manager Gender and Performance Feedback: Experimental Evidence from India By Abel, Martin; Buchman, Daniel
  6. From gender gaps in skills to gender gaps in wages: Evidence from PIAAC By Yolanda F. Rebollo-Sanz; Sara de la Rica
  7. The Motherhood Penalties : Insights from Women in UK Academia By Troeger, Vera E.; Di Leo, Riccardo; Scotto, Thomas J.; Epifanio, Mariaelisa
  8. Motherhood in Academia : A Novel Dataset with an Application to Maternity Leave Uptake By Troeger, Vera E.; Di Leo, Riccardo; Scotto, Thomas J.; Epifanio, Mariaelisa
  9. Suddenly a Stay-at-Home Dad? Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Fathers' Job Loss on Time Investment in the Household By Hennecke, Juliane; Pape, Astrid
  10. The gendered effects of the ongoing lockdown and school closures in South Africa: Evidence from NIDS-CRAM Waves 1 and 2 By Daniela Casale; Debra Shepherd

  1. By: Moritz Drechsel-Grau; Felix Holub
    Abstract: This paper investigates the contribution of managers to gender gaps and analyzes whether the over-representation of men in management positions puts women at a disadvantage. Relying on personnel data from one of the largest European manufacturing firms, we separate out the factors explaining gender gaps. Adjusted pay gaps are positive, which means that men earn more than observationally equivalent women. A significant share of pay gaps can be explained by the sorting of men and women to different managers. More importantly, gender gaps in bonus payments causally depend on the manager's gender. Accounting for worker and manager heterogeneity, bonus gaps are larger when the manager is male. This is driven by the fact that performance ratings are more favorable to men if handed out by a male manager. We present suggestive evidence that the relevance of manager gender for pay gaps is driven by discrimination rather than same-gender complementarities in productivity. However, independent of the root cause of these differences in evaluations by manager gender, the findings imply that a lower number of female managers increases gender gaps and thus constitutes a structural disadvantage for women.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, performance ratings, managers, manager gender, sorting, personnel data, unconscious discrimination
    JEL: J16 J31 J33 J71 M5 D83
    Date: 2020–11
  2. By: Sánchez, Rafael (Centro de Estudios Públicos); Finot, Javier (Ministry of Finance, Chile); Villena, Mauricio G. (Universidad Adolfo Ibañez)
    Abstract: The main aim of this work is to explain the Chilean gender wage gap using a dynamic monopsony model to estimate the labor supply elasticities at the firm level. Our results suggest that the elasticities of labor supply to firms are small, which implies that firms have labor market power. We also found that depending on the especification, Chilean men would earn approximately 19% - 28% more than women as a result of the difference in labor supply elasticities by gender, ceteris paribus. Furthermore, we find that in the long run, the magnitude of between-firm differences in elasticities are higher than within-firm differences, which suggests that the gender wage gap is driven by structural factors that generate gender sorting to firms. Finally, using the same methodology, we find that the elasticities for a high-income countries (e.g. the United States) are higher than those obtained for a middle-income country (e.g. Chile) for both men and women, which suggests higher labor market frictions in middle-income countries. The main difference between USA and Chile comes from the low labor supply elasticity of Chilean women, which appears to be explained from their low recruitment elasticity from nonemploeyment.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, dynamic monopsony, elasticity of labor supply, worker mobility, Chile
    JEL: J16 J18 J42 J62 J71
    Date: 2020–11
  3. By: Thomas B. Foster; Marta Murray-Close; Liana Christin Landivar; Mark deWolf
    Abstract: The narrowing of the gender wage gap has slowed in recent decades. However, current estimates show that, among full-time year-round workers, women earn approximately 18 to 20 percent less than men at the median. Women’s human capital and labor force characteristics that drive wages increasingly resemble men’s, so remaining differences in these characteristics explain less of the gender wage gap now than in the past. As these factors wane in importance, studies show that others like occupational and industrial segregation explain larger portions of the gender wage gap. However, a major limitation of these studies is that the large datasets required to analyze occupation and industry effectively lack measures of labor force experience. This study combines survey and administrative data to analyze and improve estimates of the gender wage gap within detailed occupations, while also accounting for gender differences in work experience. We find a gender wage gap of 18 percent among full-time, year-round workers across 316 detailed occupation categories. We show the wage gap varies significantly by occupation: while wages are at parity in some occupations, gaps are as large as 45 percent in others. More competitive and hazardous occupations, occupations that reward longer hours of work, and those that have a larger proportion of women workers have larger gender wage gaps. The models explain less of the wage gap in occupations with these attributes. Occupational characteristics shape the conditions under which men and women work and we show these characteristics can make for environments that are more or less conducive to gender parity in earnings.
    Keywords: gender; earnings gap; wage gap; women’s employment; occupations; administrative records
    Date: 2020–11
  4. By: Chu, Shuai (Renmin University of China and Global Labor Organization.); Zeng, Xiangquan (Renmin University of China and Global Labor Organization.); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, CEPR and Global Labor Organization)
    Abstract: Non-cognitive abilities are supposed to affect students' educational performance, who are challenged by parental expectations and norms. Parental gender stereotypes are shown to strongly decrease student wellbeing in China. Students are strongly more depressed, feeling blue, unhappy, not enjoying life and sad with no male-female differences while parental education does not matter.
    Keywords: Gender identity, gender stereotypes, student wellbeing, non-cognitive abilities, mental health, subjective wellbeing
    JEL: I12 I26 I31 J16 O15
    Date: 2020–11–18
  5. By: Abel, Martin (Middlebury College); Buchman, Daniel (Middlebury College)
    Abstract: We hire 1,800 Indian gig economy workers for a real-effort transcription task and randomize the gender of the (fictitious) manager as well as the delivery of performance feedback. We find that negative feedback (i.e. criticism) leads to moderate deterioration in worker attitudes, but it increases effort provision in both mandatory and voluntary tasks. By contrast, praise affects neither attitudes nor effort provision. Importantly, feedback effects do not vary between workers assigned to female and male managers. Consistent with this finding, there is no evidence for attention discrimination towards female managers, implicit gender bias, or gendered expectations among workers. By contrast, Abel (2019) employs the same research design in the U.S. and finds substantial gender discrimination and no effect of feedback on effort. This highlights that the effects of feedback and manager gender vary across different contexts.
    Keywords: India, gender discrimination, gig economy, feedback
    JEL: J50 J70
    Date: 2020–11
  6. By: Yolanda F. Rebollo-Sanz (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide;); Sara de la Rica (Department of Economics, Universidad del País Vasco;)
    Abstract: Our paper makes the first attempt using a cross-national perspective, to address the impact of skills in the analysis of gender gaps in labor market performance. To that end we use the OECD´s PIAAC dataset, which contains information on OECD and non OECD economies. Firstly, we document that there are gender gaps in cognitive skills for numeracy, which are found to be around 3-4% and to increase with age. Next, we show that gender gaps in math skills are crucial to understanding a substantial proportion of the gender gaps observed in labor market outcomes. In particular, the higher math skills exhibited by males explain 45% of the gender gap in labor force participation for young workers and 29% for workers aged 30-39. Finally, gender differences in math skills help to explain 40% of the gender wage gap observed. That impact increases from entry age to 30-39 (motherhood age), as we find that math skills explain 44% of the gender wage gap observed for young workers and as much as 55% for workers aged 30-39. .
    Keywords: gender wage gap, gender gap in labor force, cognitive skills, PIACC
    JEL: J16 J24 J31
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Troeger, Vera E. (University of Warwick & University of Hamburg); Di Leo, Riccardo (University of Warwick); Scotto, Thomas J. (University of Glasgow); Epifanio, Mariaelisa (University of Liverpool)
    Abstract: We use an original survey of academic women in the UK to investigate different dimensions of the motherhood penalty. Being a mother has no effect on salaries, but still slows down career progression even in such a high-skilled sector. Motherhood has an ambivalent impact on women’s perception of their working environment: improving satisfaction, but reducing perception of salary fairness relative to men. Our paper also explores how different policies can mitigate the motherhood penalties. We find that more generous maternity provisions are associated with higher salary, potentially because generosity reduces the crowding out of research activity. Better availability of childcare and an even distribution of responsibilities within the household correlate positively with earnings. Our findings also highlight the importance of a supportive work environment for mothers’ career and well-being at the workplace. Taken together, these findings suggest the necessity of a multi-faceted policy response to the motherhood penalties.
    Keywords: satisfaction ; salary ; career ; exclusion ; gender pay gap ; academia
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Troeger, Vera E. (University of Warwick & University of Hamburg); Di Leo, Riccardo (University of Warwick); Scotto, Thomas J. (University of Glasgow); Epifanio, Mariaelisa (University of Liverpool)
    Abstract: Legislation over the past two decades enhanced the availability and quantity of statutory maternity leave in the United Kingdom. In high-skilled sectors, many employers top up this maternity leave in an effort to retain and develop the careers of women. As leave provision became more generous, debates emerged as to the role, if any, these enhanced benefits have in retaining women in high status occupation and facilitating their career growth. Further, individual situations and employment status may prevent women from taking advantage of enhanced benefits. This paper presents findings from a comprehensive survey of thousands of women in the UK Higher Education sector and documents how the lives of academic mothers changed over the past quarter century. Contract status and the partner’s participation in parenting has significant effects on the types of maternity leave taken. We reflect on these findings and discuss future research in the area of labour market equity and productivity the availability of this comprehensive quantitative survey of academic women can facilitate.
    Keywords: motherhood ; gender gap ; maternity leaves ; academia
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Hennecke, Juliane (Auckland University of Technology); Pape, Astrid (Freie Universität Berlin)
    Abstract: Commonly described as the "gender care gap", there is a persistent gender difference in the division of domestic responsibilities in most developed countries. We provide novel evidence on the short- and long-run effects of an exogenous shock on paternal availability, through a job loss, on the allocation of domestic work within couples. We find that paternal child care and housework significantly increase in the short run on weekdays, while we do not see any similar shifts on weekends. Effects are positive and persistent for fathers who remain unemployed or have a working partner, but reverse after re-employment. We also find significant changes for female partners as well as in the cumulative household time investments and the outsourcing of tasks, depending on the labor force statuses of both partners. We theoretically discuss time availability and financial constraints, relative bargaining powers, gender role attitudes, and emotional bonds as potential explanations for the effects.
    Keywords: job loss, paternal child care, fatherhood, domestic labor, intra-household allocation
    JEL: J13 J22 J63
    Date: 2020–11
  10. By: Daniela Casale (School of Economics and Finance, University of the Witwatersrand); Debra Shepherd (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: The data from Wave 1 of NIDS-CRAM showed that women were disproportionately affected by the Covid-19 crisis and the first month of the lockdown period in South Africa. Not only were they much more likely than men to lose their jobs between February and April or to work fewer hours compared to the pre-crisis period, they also took on a greater share of the additional childcare as a result of school closures and the suspension of all childcare services. In this policy paper, we use Wave 2 of NIDS-CRAM to explore how women and men have fared as the economy started to reopen and lockdown restrictions were relaxed. The data suggest that with the move from Level 5 lockdown in April to Level 3 lockdown in June, there was hardly any change in employment levels overall. However, women may have gained slightly relative to men. Nonetheless, given the very large job losses recorded among women between February and April (women lost 2 million jobs and men 1 million jobs), women still remained well behind men in reaching their pre-Covid employment levels in June. In contrast, men benefited more from the reopening of some school grades and childcare services in June. Compared to April, the hours men reported spending on childcare in June fell by more than the hours women reported spending on childcare. The data also show that much higher numbers of women than men found childcare to affect their ability to work, to work the same hours as before lockdown, and to search for work.
    Keywords: gender, employment, childcare, Covid-19, lockdown, South Africa
    JEL: J10 J16
    Date: 2020

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